Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering

Theodore Hanein, Fredrik Paul Glasser, Marcus Nigel Campbell Bannerman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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Abstract

The useful properties of cement arise from the assemblage of solid phases present within the cement clinker. The phase proportions produced from a given feedstock are often predicted using well-established stoichiometric relations, such as the Bogue equations. These approaches are based on a single estimation of the stable phases produced under standard processing conditions and so they are limited in their general application. This work presents a thermodynamic database and simple equilibrium model which is capable of predicting cement phase stability across the full range of kiln temperatures, including the effect of atmospheric conditions. This is termed a “reaction path” and benchmarks the kinetics of processes occurring in the kiln. Phase stability is calculated using stoichiometric phase data and Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraints of an elemental balance. Predictions of stable phases and standard phase diagrams are reproduced for the manufacture of ordinary Portland cement and validated against results in the literature. The stability of low-temperature phases, which may be important in kiln operation, is explored. Finally, an outlook on future applications of the database in optimizing cement plant operation and development of new cement formulations is provided.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement
PublisherICCC
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2015) - Beijing, China
Duration: 13 Oct 201516 Oct 2015

Conference

Conference14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2015)
CountryChina
CityBeijing
Period13/10/1516/10/15

Fingerprint

Portland cement
Kilns
Cements
Thermodynamics
Phase stability
Cement plants
Gibbs free energy
Feedstocks
Phase diagrams
Temperature
Kinetics
Processing

Keywords

  • cement
  • thermodynamics
  • clinker phases
  • high temperature

Cite this

Hanein, T., Glasser, F. P., & Campbell Bannerman, M. N. (2015). Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering. In Proceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement ICCC.

Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering. / Hanein, Theodore; Glasser, Fredrik Paul; Campbell Bannerman, Marcus Nigel.

Proceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. ICCC, 2015.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Hanein, T, Glasser, FP & Campbell Bannerman, MN 2015, Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering. in Proceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. ICCC, 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2015), Beijing, China, 13/10/15.
Hanein T, Glasser FP, Campbell Bannerman MN. Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering. In Proceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. ICCC. 2015
Hanein, Theodore ; Glasser, Fredrik Paul ; Campbell Bannerman, Marcus Nigel. / Thermodynamics of Portland Cement Clinkering. Proceedings of 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. ICCC, 2015.
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AB - The useful properties of cement arise from the assemblage of solid phases present within the cement clinker. The phase proportions produced from a given feedstock are often predicted using well-established stoichiometric relations, such as the Bogue equations. These approaches are based on a single estimation of the stable phases produced under standard processing conditions and so they are limited in their general application. This work presents a thermodynamic database and simple equilibrium model which is capable of predicting cement phase stability across the full range of kiln temperatures, including the effect of atmospheric conditions. This is termed a “reaction path” and benchmarks the kinetics of processes occurring in the kiln. Phase stability is calculated using stoichiometric phase data and Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraints of an elemental balance. Predictions of stable phases and standard phase diagrams are reproduced for the manufacture of ordinary Portland cement and validated against results in the literature. The stability of low-temperature phases, which may be important in kiln operation, is explored. Finally, an outlook on future applications of the database in optimizing cement plant operation and development of new cement formulations is provided.

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