Three-dimensional characterisation of sedimentary heterogeneity and its impact on subsurface flow behaviour through the braided-to-meandering fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian, Tremp-Graus Basin, Spain)

Josep M. Puig (Corresponding Author), Patricia Cabello, John Howell, Pau Arbués

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian) form part of the Eocene infill of the Tremp-Graus piggyback basin. The Castissent Formation has been subdivided into three complexes (A, B, and C). This project focuses on the proximal fluvial-sandstones of Complex A in the Mas de Faro outcrop (NE Iberian Peninsula). There, three amalgamated channel belts are exposed in a 15–24 m thick succession that passes upwards from sandy braided-river deposits (A1-A2) to coarse-grained meandering-river deposits (A3). Sedimentary heterogeneities within these deposits are characterised and their impact on oil recovery in a reservoir analogue are estimated using field descriptions, virtual outcrop interpretation, a 3D geocellular facies model and fluid-flow simulations. Petrophysical values of different facies types were derived from well data through analogous fluvial deposits of the Eiriksson Formation, in the Norwegian North Sea. Facies analysis show a waning succession of gravel channel lags, unit-bar and dune deposits in A1; a basal mud-clast channel lag, unit-bars and dune deposits in A2, and a coarse-grained point-bar succession in A3. Flow simulation shows: a) fingering of the waterfront related to the gravel channel lag and unit-bars of A1 and A2, and the gravel bars, scour-and-fill deposits and dunes of A3, which act as thief zones hindering efficient sweeping of the intervals immediately above; b) segregation of the injected fluids towards the base of the channel belts due to the fining-upwards successions; and c) vertical compartmentalization due to a relatively impermeable barrier at mud-clast channel lag beds. Permeability contrasts trapped 35% of the original oil in place after 0.5–0.6 pore volumes were injected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-680
Number of pages20
JournalMarine and Petroleum Geology
Volume103
Early online date16 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

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Ypresian
Spain
subsurface flow
fluvial deposit
deposits
basin
dunes
gravels
dune
gravel
time lag
clast
mud
outcrops
outcrop
piggyback basin
rivers
fingering
compartmentalization
braided river

Keywords

  • Sandy braided river
  • Coarse-grained point bar
  • Sedimentary heterogeneity
  • 3D geocellular models
  • Flow simulation
  • Thief zones
  • Compartmentalization
  • Original oil in place

Cite this

@article{a5a2271e937d4ea99f7df0d2a34a832d,
title = "Three-dimensional characterisation of sedimentary heterogeneity and its impact on subsurface flow behaviour through the braided-to-meandering fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian, Tremp-Graus Basin, Spain)",
abstract = "Fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian) form part of the Eocene infill of the Tremp-Graus piggyback basin. The Castissent Formation has been subdivided into three complexes (A, B, and C). This project focuses on the proximal fluvial-sandstones of Complex A in the Mas de Faro outcrop (NE Iberian Peninsula). There, three amalgamated channel belts are exposed in a 15–24 m thick succession that passes upwards from sandy braided-river deposits (A1-A2) to coarse-grained meandering-river deposits (A3). Sedimentary heterogeneities within these deposits are characterised and their impact on oil recovery in a reservoir analogue are estimated using field descriptions, virtual outcrop interpretation, a 3D geocellular facies model and fluid-flow simulations. Petrophysical values of different facies types were derived from well data through analogous fluvial deposits of the Eiriksson Formation, in the Norwegian North Sea. Facies analysis show a waning succession of gravel channel lags, unit-bar and dune deposits in A1; a basal mud-clast channel lag, unit-bars and dune deposits in A2, and a coarse-grained point-bar succession in A3. Flow simulation shows: a) fingering of the waterfront related to the gravel channel lag and unit-bars of A1 and A2, and the gravel bars, scour-and-fill deposits and dunes of A3, which act as thief zones hindering efficient sweeping of the intervals immediately above; b) segregation of the injected fluids towards the base of the channel belts due to the fining-upwards successions; and c) vertical compartmentalization due to a relatively impermeable barrier at mud-clast channel lag beds. Permeability contrasts trapped 35{\%} of the original oil in place after 0.5–0.6 pore volumes were injected.",
keywords = "Sandy braided river, Coarse-grained point bar, Sedimentary heterogeneity, 3D geocellular models, Flow simulation, Thief zones, Compartmentalization, Original oil in place",
author = "Puig, {Josep M.} and Patricia Cabello and John Howell and Pau Arbu{\'e}s",
note = "Thanks, are given to Schlumberger for the donation of the Petrel E&P licenses, to the Virtual Outcrop Geology Group for the donation of LIME licenses, to Petroleum Experts for the donation of MOVE licenses, to Innovmetric for the donation of the Polyworks license and to Agisoft for the donation of the Agisoft Photoscan license. Magda Chmielewska is acknowledged for the technical support during the virtual outcrop processing. Support from the Ministerio de Econom{\'i}a y Competitividad (Project SEROS CGL2014-55900-P) and from the Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR596) is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks to reviewers Brian Willis and C{\'e}sar Viseras and also to the Associate Editor Luca Colombera for their constructive comments, which have improved the content of this paper.",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.02.014",
language = "English",
volume = "103",
pages = "661--680",
journal = "Marine and Petroleum Geology",
issn = "0264-8172",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three-dimensional characterisation of sedimentary heterogeneity and its impact on subsurface flow behaviour through the braided-to-meandering fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian, Tremp-Graus Basin, Spain)

AU - Puig, Josep M.

AU - Cabello, Patricia

AU - Howell, John

AU - Arbués, Pau

N1 - Thanks, are given to Schlumberger for the donation of the Petrel E&P licenses, to the Virtual Outcrop Geology Group for the donation of LIME licenses, to Petroleum Experts for the donation of MOVE licenses, to Innovmetric for the donation of the Polyworks license and to Agisoft for the donation of the Agisoft Photoscan license. Magda Chmielewska is acknowledged for the technical support during the virtual outcrop processing. Support from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Project SEROS CGL2014-55900-P) and from the Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR596) is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks to reviewers Brian Willis and César Viseras and also to the Associate Editor Luca Colombera for their constructive comments, which have improved the content of this paper.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian) form part of the Eocene infill of the Tremp-Graus piggyback basin. The Castissent Formation has been subdivided into three complexes (A, B, and C). This project focuses on the proximal fluvial-sandstones of Complex A in the Mas de Faro outcrop (NE Iberian Peninsula). There, three amalgamated channel belts are exposed in a 15–24 m thick succession that passes upwards from sandy braided-river deposits (A1-A2) to coarse-grained meandering-river deposits (A3). Sedimentary heterogeneities within these deposits are characterised and their impact on oil recovery in a reservoir analogue are estimated using field descriptions, virtual outcrop interpretation, a 3D geocellular facies model and fluid-flow simulations. Petrophysical values of different facies types were derived from well data through analogous fluvial deposits of the Eiriksson Formation, in the Norwegian North Sea. Facies analysis show a waning succession of gravel channel lags, unit-bar and dune deposits in A1; a basal mud-clast channel lag, unit-bars and dune deposits in A2, and a coarse-grained point-bar succession in A3. Flow simulation shows: a) fingering of the waterfront related to the gravel channel lag and unit-bars of A1 and A2, and the gravel bars, scour-and-fill deposits and dunes of A3, which act as thief zones hindering efficient sweeping of the intervals immediately above; b) segregation of the injected fluids towards the base of the channel belts due to the fining-upwards successions; and c) vertical compartmentalization due to a relatively impermeable barrier at mud-clast channel lag beds. Permeability contrasts trapped 35% of the original oil in place after 0.5–0.6 pore volumes were injected.

AB - Fluvial deposits of the Castissent Formation (late Ypresian) form part of the Eocene infill of the Tremp-Graus piggyback basin. The Castissent Formation has been subdivided into three complexes (A, B, and C). This project focuses on the proximal fluvial-sandstones of Complex A in the Mas de Faro outcrop (NE Iberian Peninsula). There, three amalgamated channel belts are exposed in a 15–24 m thick succession that passes upwards from sandy braided-river deposits (A1-A2) to coarse-grained meandering-river deposits (A3). Sedimentary heterogeneities within these deposits are characterised and their impact on oil recovery in a reservoir analogue are estimated using field descriptions, virtual outcrop interpretation, a 3D geocellular facies model and fluid-flow simulations. Petrophysical values of different facies types were derived from well data through analogous fluvial deposits of the Eiriksson Formation, in the Norwegian North Sea. Facies analysis show a waning succession of gravel channel lags, unit-bar and dune deposits in A1; a basal mud-clast channel lag, unit-bars and dune deposits in A2, and a coarse-grained point-bar succession in A3. Flow simulation shows: a) fingering of the waterfront related to the gravel channel lag and unit-bars of A1 and A2, and the gravel bars, scour-and-fill deposits and dunes of A3, which act as thief zones hindering efficient sweeping of the intervals immediately above; b) segregation of the injected fluids towards the base of the channel belts due to the fining-upwards successions; and c) vertical compartmentalization due to a relatively impermeable barrier at mud-clast channel lag beds. Permeability contrasts trapped 35% of the original oil in place after 0.5–0.6 pore volumes were injected.

KW - Sandy braided river

KW - Coarse-grained point bar

KW - Sedimentary heterogeneity

KW - 3D geocellular models

KW - Flow simulation

KW - Thief zones

KW - Compartmentalization

KW - Original oil in place

U2 - 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.02.014

DO - 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.02.014

M3 - Article

VL - 103

SP - 661

EP - 680

JO - Marine and Petroleum Geology

JF - Marine and Petroleum Geology

SN - 0264-8172

ER -