The hormone testosterone plays crucial roles during male development and puberty and throughout life, as an anabolic regulator of muscle and bone structure and function. The actions of testosterone are mediated, primarily, through the androgen receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X-chromosome and receptor levels are tightly controlled both at the level of transcription of the gene and post-translationally at the protein level. Sp1 has emerged as the major driver of expression of the androgen receptor gene, while auto-regulation by androgens is associated with both positive and negative regulation in a possible cell-selective manner. Research into the networks of positive and negative regulators of the androgen receptor gene are vital in order to understand the temporal and spatial control of receptor levels and the consequences for healthy aging and disease. A clear understanding of the multiple transcription factors participating in regulation of the androgen receptor gene will likely aid in the development and application of hormone therapies to boast or curb receptor activity.
- Tissue-selective gene regulation
- Positive/negative feedback