The sirtuin/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) system is implicated in development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet-induced obesity, a major risk factor for T2D. Mechanistic links have not yet been defined. Sirtuin/NAD system gene expression and NAD/NADH levels were measured in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from mice fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days up to 16 weeks. An in-house custom designed multiplex gene expression assay, assessed all 7 mouse sirtuins (SIRT1-7) and 16 enzymes involved in conversion of tryptophan, niacin, nicotinamide riboside and metabolic precursors to NAD. Significantly altered transcription was correlated with body weight, fat mass, plasma lipids and hormones. Regulation of the sirtuin/NAD system was associated with early (SIRT4, SIRT7, NAPRT1, NMNAT2) and late phases (NMNAT3, NMRK2, ABCA1, CD38) of glucose intolerance. TDO2 and NNMT were identified as markers of HFD consumption. Altered regulation of the SIRT/NAD system in response to HFD was prominent in liver compared to WAT or muscle. Multiple components of the sirtuins and NAD biosynthetic enzymes network respond to consumption of dietary fat. Novel molecular targets identified above could direct strategies for dietary/therapeutic interventions to limit metabolic dysfunction and development of T2D.
- glucose intolerance
- high fat diet
- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide