Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism

R. M. Elliott*, B. de Roos, S. J. Duthie, F. G. Bouwman, I. Rubio-Aliaga, L. K. Crosley, C. Mayer, A. C. Polley, C. Heim, S. L. Coort, C. T. Evelo, F. Mulholland, H. Daniel, E. C. Mariman, I. T. Johnson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Article number432
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalGenes & Nutrition
Volume9
Issue number6
Early online date27 Sep 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Fingerprint

Gene Expression Profiling
Energy Metabolism
Fasting
Blood Cells
Apoptosis
Inflammation
Genes
Insurance Benefits
Fatty Acids
Interferon Type I
Feeding Behavior
Individuality
Healthy Volunteers
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Diet
Gene Expression
Incidence

Keywords

  • Fasting
  • Gene expression profiling
  • Inflammation
  • Mononuclear cells
  • Transcriptomics
  • Type 1 interferon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Genetics

Cite this

Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism. / Elliott, R. M.; de Roos, B.; Duthie, S. J.; Bouwman, F. G.; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Crosley, L. K.; Mayer, C.; Polley, A. C.; Heim, C.; Coort, S. L.; Evelo, C. T.; Mulholland, F.; Daniel, H.; Mariman, E. C.; Johnson, I. T.

In: Genes & Nutrition, Vol. 9, No. 6, 432, 11.2014, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elliott, RM, de Roos, B, Duthie, SJ, Bouwman, FG, Rubio-Aliaga, I, Crosley, LK, Mayer, C, Polley, AC, Heim, C, Coort, SL, Evelo, CT, Mulholland, F, Daniel, H, Mariman, EC & Johnson, IT 2014, 'Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism', Genes & Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 6, 432, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12263-014-0432-4
Elliott, R. M. ; de Roos, B. ; Duthie, S. J. ; Bouwman, F. G. ; Rubio-Aliaga, I. ; Crosley, L. K. ; Mayer, C. ; Polley, A. C. ; Heim, C. ; Coort, S. L. ; Evelo, C. T. ; Mulholland, F. ; Daniel, H. ; Mariman, E. C. ; Johnson, I. T. / Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism. In: Genes & Nutrition. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 6. pp. 1-11.
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abstract = "There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.",
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N1 - Acknowledgments This research was supported by NuGO (The European Nutrigenomics Organisation: linking genomics, nutrition and health research; CT-2004-505944). NuGO is a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission’s Research Directorate General under Priority Thematic Area 5 Food Quality and Safety Priority of the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health is funded by the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS). The Institute of Food Research is funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).

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