Tumour- and treatment-related colostomy rates following mitomycin C or cisplatin chemoradiation with or without maintenance chemotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in the ACT II trial

Robert Glynne-Jones*, L. Kadalayil, H. M. Meadows, D. Cunningham, L. Samuel, J. I. Geh, C. Lowdell, R. James, S. Beare, R. Begum, J. A. Ledermann, D. Sebag-Montefiore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is highly sensitive to chemoradiation (CRT) which achieves good loco-regional control and preserves anal function. However, some patients require permanent stoma formation either as a result of surgery on relapse, poor anal function or treatment-related symptoms. Our aim was to determine patient, tumour and treatment-related colostomy rates following CRT and maintenance chemotherapy in the ACT II trial. Patients and methods: The ACT II trial recruited 940 patients comparing 5FU-based CRT using cisplatin (CisP) or mitomycin C (MMC) with or without additional maintenance chemotherapy. We investigated the association between colostomy-free survival (CFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with age, gender, T-stage, N-stage, treatment and baseline haemoglobin. Results: The median follow-up was 5.1 years (n = 884 evaluable/940); tumour site canal (84%), margin (14%); stage T1/T2 (52%), T3/T4 (46%); N+ (32%), N0 (62%). Twenty out of 118 (17%) colostomies fashioned before CRT were reversed within 8 months. One hundred and twelve patients had a post-treatment colostomy due to persistent disease (98) or morbidity (14). Fifty-two per cent (61/118) of all pre-treatment colostomies were never reversed. The 5-year CFS rates were 68% MMC/Maint, 70% CisP/Maint, 68% MMC/No-maint and 65% CisP/No-maint. CRT with CisP did not improve CFS when compared with MMC (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.31, P = 0.74). The 5-year CFS rates were higher for T1/T2 (79%) than T3/T4 (54%) tumours and higher for node-negative (72%) than node-positive (60%) patients. Significant predictors of CFS were gender, T-stage and haemoglobin, while treatment factors had no impact on outcome. Similar associations were found between PFS and tumour/treatment-related factors. Conclusions: The majority (52%) of pre-treatment colostomies were never reversed. Neither CRT with 5FU/CisP nor maintenance chemotherapy impacted on CFS. The low risk of colostomy for late effects (1.7%) is likely to be associated with the modest total radiotherapy dose. The predictive factors for CFS were T-stage, gender and baseline haemoglobin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1616-1622
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume25
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014

Keywords

  • Anal cancer
  • Chemoradiation
  • Colostomy-free survival
  • Loco-regional control
  • Risk factors
  • Squamous cell carcinoma

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