Under dry, anaerobic conditions, TiO(2) photocatalysis of carboxylic acid precursors resulted in carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. High yields of dimers were obtained from TiO(2) treatment of carboxylic acids alone. On inclusion of electron-deficient alkenes, efficient alkylations were achieved with methoxymethyl and phenoxymethyl radicals. In reactions with maleic anhydride or maleimides, phenoxyacetic acid produced chromenedione derivatives in addition to adducts. These photocatalytic reactions are simple and cheap to perform, and the TiO(2) is easily removed by filtration. The anaerobic photocatalysis strategy offers a range of synthetic possibilities.
Manley, D., McBurney, R., Miller, P., Howe, R. F., Rhydderch, S., & Walton, J. (2012). Unconventional titania photocatalysis: direct deployment of carboxylic acids in alkylations and annulations. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(33), 13580-13583. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja306168h