Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans

Fredrik Christiansen, David Lusseau

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Whale-watching is a potentially sustainable use of cetaceans and an economically viable alternative to whaling and has become a major contributor to the tourism sector of many countries (Hoyt, 2001; O’Connor et al., 2009). Whale-watching also has the potential to improve people's attitude toward the marine environment, and promote public awareness and support for the conservation issues that targeted species face (Duffus & Dearden, 1993). However, whale-watching can put cetaceans at risk of being harassed and injured by an unknown number of unpredictable impacts which can pose a risk to the viability of the targeted population, as well as the whale-watching industry itself. Reported effects of human disturbance on ceta-ceans cover a range of taxa, including many odontocete species and several species of mysticetes (see Chapter 16). Even though many studies have shown that whale-watching can cause both short- (Nowacek et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2002b; Lusseau, 2003a; Christiansen et al., 2010) and long-term negative effects on cetaceans (Bejder et al., 2006; Fortuna, 2006; Lusseau et al., 2006b), few studies have focused on explaining the underlying cause, or ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for these effects (Frid & Dill, 2002). Understanding how human interactions affect wildlife is crucial for the sustainable management of any nature-based tourism activity. This chapter address-es the ecological foundations of whale-watching disturbance on cetaceans. It gives an overview of the documented impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans and compares this to observations of natural predation. It then tries to explain how whale-watching is perceived by the animals to understand the underlying ecological and evolutionary basis for these responses. It goes on to discuss different factors that are likely to influence the response of animals to whale-watching. We then discuss the long-term effects of whale-watching on cetaceans by following the mechanistic link between behavioural effects and vital rates within an energetic framework. Ecological and biological constraints to the ability of cetaceans to cope with disturbance are discussed as well as their implication for long-term vital rates.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWhale-Watching
Subtitle of host publicationSustainable Tourism and Ecological Management
EditorsJames Higham, Lars Bejder, Rob Williams
Place of PublicationCambridge
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages177-192
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781139018166, 9780521195973
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

Fingerprint

Whales
whales
Anethum graveolens
human-wildlife relations
dill
ecotourism
tourism
animal behavior
marine environment
long term effects
Industry
viability
predation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Christiansen, F., & Lusseau, D. (2014). Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans. In J. Higham, L. Bejder, & R. Williams (Eds.), Whale-Watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management (pp. 177-192). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016

Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans. / Christiansen, Fredrik; Lusseau, David.

Whale-Watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. ed. / James Higham; Lars Bejder; Rob Williams. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2014. p. 177-192.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Christiansen, F & Lusseau, D 2014, Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans. in J Higham, L Bejder & R Williams (eds), Whale-Watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 177-192. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016
Christiansen F, Lusseau D. Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans. In Higham J, Bejder L, Williams R, editors, Whale-Watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2014. p. 177-192 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016
Christiansen, Fredrik ; Lusseau, David. / Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans. Whale-Watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. editor / James Higham ; Lars Bejder ; Rob Williams. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2014. pp. 177-192
@inbook{3f17415876524d919b9ba0c90ac7d5fc,
title = "Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans",
abstract = "Whale-watching is a potentially sustainable use of cetaceans and an economically viable alternative to whaling and has become a major contributor to the tourism sector of many countries (Hoyt, 2001; O’Connor et al., 2009). Whale-watching also has the potential to improve people's attitude toward the marine environment, and promote public awareness and support for the conservation issues that targeted species face (Duffus & Dearden, 1993). However, whale-watching can put cetaceans at risk of being harassed and injured by an unknown number of unpredictable impacts which can pose a risk to the viability of the targeted population, as well as the whale-watching industry itself. Reported effects of human disturbance on ceta-ceans cover a range of taxa, including many odontocete species and several species of mysticetes (see Chapter 16). Even though many studies have shown that whale-watching can cause both short- (Nowacek et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2002b; Lusseau, 2003a; Christiansen et al., 2010) and long-term negative effects on cetaceans (Bejder et al., 2006; Fortuna, 2006; Lusseau et al., 2006b), few studies have focused on explaining the underlying cause, or ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for these effects (Frid & Dill, 2002). Understanding how human interactions affect wildlife is crucial for the sustainable management of any nature-based tourism activity. This chapter address-es the ecological foundations of whale-watching disturbance on cetaceans. It gives an overview of the documented impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans and compares this to observations of natural predation. It then tries to explain how whale-watching is perceived by the animals to understand the underlying ecological and evolutionary basis for these responses. It goes on to discuss different factors that are likely to influence the response of animals to whale-watching. We then discuss the long-term effects of whale-watching on cetaceans by following the mechanistic link between behavioural effects and vital rates within an energetic framework. Ecological and biological constraints to the ability of cetaceans to cope with disturbance are discussed as well as their implication for long-term vital rates.",
author = "Fredrik Christiansen and David Lusseau",
year = "2014",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781139018166",
pages = "177--192",
editor = "Higham, {James } and Bejder, {Lars } and Williams, {Rob }",
booktitle = "Whale-Watching",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans

AU - Christiansen, Fredrik

AU - Lusseau, David

PY - 2014/4

Y1 - 2014/4

N2 - Whale-watching is a potentially sustainable use of cetaceans and an economically viable alternative to whaling and has become a major contributor to the tourism sector of many countries (Hoyt, 2001; O’Connor et al., 2009). Whale-watching also has the potential to improve people's attitude toward the marine environment, and promote public awareness and support for the conservation issues that targeted species face (Duffus & Dearden, 1993). However, whale-watching can put cetaceans at risk of being harassed and injured by an unknown number of unpredictable impacts which can pose a risk to the viability of the targeted population, as well as the whale-watching industry itself. Reported effects of human disturbance on ceta-ceans cover a range of taxa, including many odontocete species and several species of mysticetes (see Chapter 16). Even though many studies have shown that whale-watching can cause both short- (Nowacek et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2002b; Lusseau, 2003a; Christiansen et al., 2010) and long-term negative effects on cetaceans (Bejder et al., 2006; Fortuna, 2006; Lusseau et al., 2006b), few studies have focused on explaining the underlying cause, or ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for these effects (Frid & Dill, 2002). Understanding how human interactions affect wildlife is crucial for the sustainable management of any nature-based tourism activity. This chapter address-es the ecological foundations of whale-watching disturbance on cetaceans. It gives an overview of the documented impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans and compares this to observations of natural predation. It then tries to explain how whale-watching is perceived by the animals to understand the underlying ecological and evolutionary basis for these responses. It goes on to discuss different factors that are likely to influence the response of animals to whale-watching. We then discuss the long-term effects of whale-watching on cetaceans by following the mechanistic link between behavioural effects and vital rates within an energetic framework. Ecological and biological constraints to the ability of cetaceans to cope with disturbance are discussed as well as their implication for long-term vital rates.

AB - Whale-watching is a potentially sustainable use of cetaceans and an economically viable alternative to whaling and has become a major contributor to the tourism sector of many countries (Hoyt, 2001; O’Connor et al., 2009). Whale-watching also has the potential to improve people's attitude toward the marine environment, and promote public awareness and support for the conservation issues that targeted species face (Duffus & Dearden, 1993). However, whale-watching can put cetaceans at risk of being harassed and injured by an unknown number of unpredictable impacts which can pose a risk to the viability of the targeted population, as well as the whale-watching industry itself. Reported effects of human disturbance on ceta-ceans cover a range of taxa, including many odontocete species and several species of mysticetes (see Chapter 16). Even though many studies have shown that whale-watching can cause both short- (Nowacek et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2002b; Lusseau, 2003a; Christiansen et al., 2010) and long-term negative effects on cetaceans (Bejder et al., 2006; Fortuna, 2006; Lusseau et al., 2006b), few studies have focused on explaining the underlying cause, or ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for these effects (Frid & Dill, 2002). Understanding how human interactions affect wildlife is crucial for the sustainable management of any nature-based tourism activity. This chapter address-es the ecological foundations of whale-watching disturbance on cetaceans. It gives an overview of the documented impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans and compares this to observations of natural predation. It then tries to explain how whale-watching is perceived by the animals to understand the underlying ecological and evolutionary basis for these responses. It goes on to discuss different factors that are likely to influence the response of animals to whale-watching. We then discuss the long-term effects of whale-watching on cetaceans by following the mechanistic link between behavioural effects and vital rates within an energetic framework. Ecological and biological constraints to the ability of cetaceans to cope with disturbance are discussed as well as their implication for long-term vital rates.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84973494468&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016

DO - 10.1017/CBO9781139018166.016

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781139018166

SN - 9780521195973

SP - 177

EP - 192

BT - Whale-Watching

A2 - Higham, James

A2 - Bejder, Lars

A2 - Williams, Rob

PB - Cambridge University Press

CY - Cambridge

ER -