Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management

a mixed-methods study

Leanne G Morrison, Charlie Hargood, Sharon Xiaowen Lin, Laura Dennison, Judith Joseph, Stephanie Hughes, Danius T Michaelides, Derek Johnston, Marie Johnston, Susan Michie, Paul Little, Peter Wf Smith, Mark J Weal, Lucy Yardley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention.

OBJECTIVE: This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker.

METHODS: Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants' goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants' experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker.

RESULTS: Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants' awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes, SD 33 minutes). POWeR Tracker was mostly accessed in short bursts (mean 3 minutes, SD 2 minutes) during convenient moments or moments when participants deemed the intervention content most relevant. The qualitative data indicated that nearly all participants agreed that it was more convenient to access information on-the-go via their mobiles compared to a computer. However, participants varied in their views and usage of the Web- versus app-based components and the informational versus tracking tools provided by POWeR Tracker.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that smartphones have the potential to improve individuals' engagement with their health-related goals when used as a supplement to an existing online intervention. The perceived convenience of mobile access to information does not appear to deter use of Web-based interventions or strengthen the impact of app access on goal engagement. A mixed-methods design enabled exploration of individual variation in daily usage of the app-based tools.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere201
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Volume16
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2014

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Weights and Measures
Access to Information
Cell Phones
Health Behavior
Health
Self Efficacy
Self Report
Motivation
Eating
Smartphone
Interviews
Technology
Research

Keywords

  • qualitative research
  • weight loss
  • behavioral research
  • mobile apps
  • internet
  • health
  • program acceptibility
  • behavior
  • mixed-methods

Cite this

Morrison, L. G., Hargood, C., Lin, S. X., Dennison, L., Joseph, J., Hughes, S., ... Yardley, L. (2014). Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management: a mixed-methods study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(10), [e201]. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3579

Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management : a mixed-methods study. / Morrison, Leanne G; Hargood, Charlie; Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Dennison, Laura; Joseph, Judith; Hughes, Stephanie; Michaelides, Danius T; Johnston, Derek; Johnston, Marie; Michie, Susan; Little, Paul; Smith, Peter Wf; Weal, Mark J; Yardley, Lucy.

In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 16, No. 10, e201, 22.10.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Morrison, LG, Hargood, C, Lin, SX, Dennison, L, Joseph, J, Hughes, S, Michaelides, DT, Johnston, D, Johnston, M, Michie, S, Little, P, Smith, PW, Weal, MJ & Yardley, L 2014, 'Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management: a mixed-methods study', Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 16, no. 10, e201. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3579
Morrison, Leanne G ; Hargood, Charlie ; Lin, Sharon Xiaowen ; Dennison, Laura ; Joseph, Judith ; Hughes, Stephanie ; Michaelides, Danius T ; Johnston, Derek ; Johnston, Marie ; Michie, Susan ; Little, Paul ; Smith, Peter Wf ; Weal, Mark J ; Yardley, Lucy. / Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management : a mixed-methods study. In: Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2014 ; Vol. 16, No. 10.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention.OBJECTIVE: This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker.METHODS: Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants' goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants' experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker.RESULTS: Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants' awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes, SD 33 minutes). POWeR Tracker was mostly accessed in short bursts (mean 3 minutes, SD 2 minutes) during convenient moments or moments when participants deemed the intervention content most relevant. The qualitative data indicated that nearly all participants agreed that it was more convenient to access information on-the-go via their mobiles compared to a computer. However, participants varied in their views and usage of the Web- versus app-based components and the informational versus tracking tools provided by POWeR Tracker.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that smartphones have the potential to improve individuals' engagement with their health-related goals when used as a supplement to an existing online intervention. The perceived convenience of mobile access to information does not appear to deter use of Web-based interventions or strengthen the impact of app access on goal engagement. A mixed-methods design enabled exploration of individual variation in daily usage of the app-based tools.",
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author = "Morrison, {Leanne G} and Charlie Hargood and Lin, {Sharon Xiaowen} and Laura Dennison and Judith Joseph and Stephanie Hughes and Michaelides, {Danius T} and Derek Johnston and Marie Johnston and Susan Michie and Paul Little and Smith, {Peter Wf} and Weal, {Mark J} and Lucy Yardley",
note = "Acknowledgments We would like to thank all participants for sharing their views and experiences. We would also like to thank Hollie Butcher for her assistance with transcribing and cleaning the data. The study was funded by the UK Economic and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/I032673/1: UBhave: ubiquitous and social computing for positive behavior change).",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Understanding usage of a hybrid website and smartphone app for weight management

T2 - a mixed-methods study

AU - Morrison, Leanne G

AU - Hargood, Charlie

AU - Lin, Sharon Xiaowen

AU - Dennison, Laura

AU - Joseph, Judith

AU - Hughes, Stephanie

AU - Michaelides, Danius T

AU - Johnston, Derek

AU - Johnston, Marie

AU - Michie, Susan

AU - Little, Paul

AU - Smith, Peter Wf

AU - Weal, Mark J

AU - Yardley, Lucy

N1 - Acknowledgments We would like to thank all participants for sharing their views and experiences. We would also like to thank Hollie Butcher for her assistance with transcribing and cleaning the data. The study was funded by the UK Economic and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/I032673/1: UBhave: ubiquitous and social computing for positive behavior change).

PY - 2014/10/22

Y1 - 2014/10/22

N2 - BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention.OBJECTIVE: This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker.METHODS: Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants' goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants' experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker.RESULTS: Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants' awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes, SD 33 minutes). POWeR Tracker was mostly accessed in short bursts (mean 3 minutes, SD 2 minutes) during convenient moments or moments when participants deemed the intervention content most relevant. The qualitative data indicated that nearly all participants agreed that it was more convenient to access information on-the-go via their mobiles compared to a computer. However, participants varied in their views and usage of the Web- versus app-based components and the informational versus tracking tools provided by POWeR Tracker.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that smartphones have the potential to improve individuals' engagement with their health-related goals when used as a supplement to an existing online intervention. The perceived convenience of mobile access to information does not appear to deter use of Web-based interventions or strengthen the impact of app access on goal engagement. A mixed-methods design enabled exploration of individual variation in daily usage of the app-based tools.

AB - BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention.OBJECTIVE: This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker.METHODS: Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants' goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants' experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker.RESULTS: Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants' awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes, SD 33 minutes). POWeR Tracker was mostly accessed in short bursts (mean 3 minutes, SD 2 minutes) during convenient moments or moments when participants deemed the intervention content most relevant. The qualitative data indicated that nearly all participants agreed that it was more convenient to access information on-the-go via their mobiles compared to a computer. However, participants varied in their views and usage of the Web- versus app-based components and the informational versus tracking tools provided by POWeR Tracker.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that smartphones have the potential to improve individuals' engagement with their health-related goals when used as a supplement to an existing online intervention. The perceived convenience of mobile access to information does not appear to deter use of Web-based interventions or strengthen the impact of app access on goal engagement. A mixed-methods design enabled exploration of individual variation in daily usage of the app-based tools.

KW - qualitative research

KW - weight loss

KW - behavioral research

KW - mobile apps

KW - internet

KW - health

KW - program acceptibility

KW - behavior

KW - mixed-methods

U2 - 10.2196/jmir.3579

DO - 10.2196/jmir.3579

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - Journal of Medical Internet Research

JF - Journal of Medical Internet Research

SN - 1439-4456

IS - 10

M1 - e201

ER -