Vertebrate Cytokines and Their Evolution

Christopher J. Secombes*, Tiehui Wang, Steve Bird

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

13 Citations (Scopus)


This review outlines what we know about cytokines and their evolution within vertebrates. It is focused on the interleukins, as key cytokines involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity, as well as the TNF family of cytokines. The genes that are known, and their function, are outlined as far as possible, and potential modes of evolution within cytokine gene families is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Evolution of the Immune System
Subtitle of host publicationConservation and Diversification
EditorsDavide Malagoli
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages64
ISBN (Electronic)9780128020135
ISBN (Print)9780128019757
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2016



  • Cytokines
  • Evolution
  • Immunity
  • Interleukins
  • Tumor necrosis factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Secombes, C. J., Wang, T., & Bird, S. (2016). Vertebrate Cytokines and Their Evolution. In D. Malagoli (Ed.), The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification (pp. 87-150). Academic Press.