Winter gale day frequency in Shetland and Faeroes, AD 1866-1905: links to sea ice history and the North Atlantic Oscillation

Alastair George Dawson (Corresponding Author), Jason McIlveny, James Warren

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3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The paper describes changes in winter gale day frequency that took place in the Shetland and Faeroe Isles between ca. AD 1866–1905. During the early part of this period, winter gale day frequencies reached values that have never been exceeded since. During the later part of this time interval, culminating in the winters of 1903–04 and 1904–05, scarcely any gales occurred. The majority of the time interval between 1866 –1895 was characterized by high-amplitude fluctuations in the sign of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (extreme positive to extreme negative) and by extreme changes in annual sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea. Between 1866–1894, however, winter gale day frequencies remained consistently high. It is suggested that this unusual relationship may be explained through the important role of sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea affecting the extent of the polar anticyclone and hence the position of the North Atlantic storm track. By contrast, the later part of this time interval (AD 1894–1905) was characterized by very few winter gales and no extremes in the monthly NAO Index.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-152
Number of pages12
JournalScottish Geographical Journal
Volume126
Issue number3
Early online date10 Nov 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

North Atlantic Oscillation
sea ice
winter
history
storm track
fluctuation
anticyclone
time
Values
index
sea

Keywords

  • Winter gale days
  • sea ice
  • North Atlantic Oscillation
  • Shetland Isles
  • Faroe Islands
  • Greenland Sea

Cite this

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title = "Winter gale day frequency in Shetland and Faeroes, AD 1866-1905: links to sea ice history and the North Atlantic Oscillation",
abstract = "The paper describes changes in winter gale day frequency that took place in the Shetland and Faeroe Isles between ca. AD 1866–1905. During the early part of this period, winter gale day frequencies reached values that have never been exceeded since. During the later part of this time interval, culminating in the winters of 1903–04 and 1904–05, scarcely any gales occurred. The majority of the time interval between 1866 –1895 was characterized by high-amplitude fluctuations in the sign of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (extreme positive to extreme negative) and by extreme changes in annual sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea. Between 1866–1894, however, winter gale day frequencies remained consistently high. It is suggested that this unusual relationship may be explained through the important role of sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea affecting the extent of the polar anticyclone and hence the position of the North Atlantic storm track. By contrast, the later part of this time interval (AD 1894–1905) was characterized by very few winter gales and no extremes in the monthly NAO Index.",
keywords = "Winter gale days, sea ice, North Atlantic Oscillation, Shetland Isles, Faroe Islands, Greenland Sea",
author = "Dawson, {Alastair George} and Jason McIlveny and James Warren",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1080/14702541.2010.527857",
language = "English",
volume = "126",
pages = "141--152",
journal = "Scottish Geographical Journal",
issn = "1470-2541",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Winter gale day frequency in Shetland and Faeroes, AD 1866-1905

T2 - links to sea ice history and the North Atlantic Oscillation

AU - Dawson, Alastair George

AU - McIlveny, Jason

AU - Warren, James

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The paper describes changes in winter gale day frequency that took place in the Shetland and Faeroe Isles between ca. AD 1866–1905. During the early part of this period, winter gale day frequencies reached values that have never been exceeded since. During the later part of this time interval, culminating in the winters of 1903–04 and 1904–05, scarcely any gales occurred. The majority of the time interval between 1866 –1895 was characterized by high-amplitude fluctuations in the sign of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (extreme positive to extreme negative) and by extreme changes in annual sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea. Between 1866–1894, however, winter gale day frequencies remained consistently high. It is suggested that this unusual relationship may be explained through the important role of sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea affecting the extent of the polar anticyclone and hence the position of the North Atlantic storm track. By contrast, the later part of this time interval (AD 1894–1905) was characterized by very few winter gales and no extremes in the monthly NAO Index.

AB - The paper describes changes in winter gale day frequency that took place in the Shetland and Faeroe Isles between ca. AD 1866–1905. During the early part of this period, winter gale day frequencies reached values that have never been exceeded since. During the later part of this time interval, culminating in the winters of 1903–04 and 1904–05, scarcely any gales occurred. The majority of the time interval between 1866 –1895 was characterized by high-amplitude fluctuations in the sign of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (extreme positive to extreme negative) and by extreme changes in annual sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea. Between 1866–1894, however, winter gale day frequencies remained consistently high. It is suggested that this unusual relationship may be explained through the important role of sea ice extent across the Greenland Sea affecting the extent of the polar anticyclone and hence the position of the North Atlantic storm track. By contrast, the later part of this time interval (AD 1894–1905) was characterized by very few winter gales and no extremes in the monthly NAO Index.

KW - Winter gale days

KW - sea ice

KW - North Atlantic Oscillation

KW - Shetland Isles

KW - Faroe Islands

KW - Greenland Sea

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DO - 10.1080/14702541.2010.527857

M3 - Article

VL - 126

SP - 141

EP - 152

JO - Scottish Geographical Journal

JF - Scottish Geographical Journal

SN - 1470-2541

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ER -