The technical difficulties in designing a SPAMM sequence to image pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at different phases of the cardiac cycle are described. The criteria used to select the most appropriate order of binomial SPAMM sequence are outlined. Data collection times required to view both cephalad and caudad flow for all R-R intervals were considered. The flip angles of the RF pulses required to produce images with equal CSF intensity throughout the cardiac cycle were also investigated.
Wayte, S. C., Redpath, T. W., & Beale, D. J. (1993). A cine-SPAMM sequences for NMR imaging of pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid flow. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 38(3), 38. https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/38/3/011