Age at Onset of Walking in Infancy Is Associated With Hip Shape in Early Old Age

Alex Ireland (Corresponding Author), Fiona R Saunders, Stella G Muthuri, Anastasia Pavlova, Rebecca Hardy, Kathryn Martin, Rebecca Barr, Diana Kuh, Richard M Aspden, Jenny Gregory, Rachel Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Bones' shapes and structures adapt to the muscle and reaction forces they experience during everyday movements. Onset of independent walking, at approximately 12 months, represents the first postnatal exposure of the lower limbs to the large forces associated with bipedal movements, and, accordingly, earlier walking is associated with greater bone strength. However, associations between early life loading and joint shape have not been explored.

We therefore examined associations between walking age and hip shape at age 60‐64y in 1423 individuals (740 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally‐representative British birth cohort. Walking age in months was obtained from maternal interview at age 2y. Ten modes of variation in hip shape (HM1‐HM10), described by statistical shape models, were ascertained from dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) images.

In sex‐adjusted analyses, earlier walking age was associated with higher HM1 and HM7 scores; these associations were maintained after further adjustment for height, body composition and socioeconomic position. Earlier walking was also associated with lower HM2 scores in women only, and lower HM4 scores in men only. Taken together, this suggests that earlier walkers have proportionately larger (HM4) and flatter (HM1,4) femoral heads, wider (HM1,4,7) and flatter (HM1, 7) femoral necks, smaller neck‐shaft angle (HM1,4), anteversion (HM2,7) and development of osteophytes (HM1).

These results suggest that age at onset of walking in infancy is associated with variations in hip shape in older age. Early walkers have a larger femoral head and neck and smaller neck‐shaft angle; these features are associated with reduced hip fracture risk, but also represent an osteoarthritic‐like phenotype. Unlike results of previous studies of walking age and bone mass, associations in this study were not affected by adjustment for lean mass suggesting that associations may relate directly to skeletal loading in early life when joint shape changes rapidly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455-463
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume34
Issue number3
Early online date15 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Age of Onset
Walking
Hip
Walkers
Femur Neck
Bone and Bones
Joints
Osteophyte
Hip Fractures
Statistical Models
Thigh
Body Composition
Health Surveys
Lower Extremity
Mothers
X-Rays
Parturition
Interviews
Phenotype
Muscles

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • exercise
  • bone-muscle interactions
  • BONE–MUSCLE INTERACTIONS
  • BIOMECHANICS
  • EXERCISE
  • FEMORAL-NECK
  • NECK-SHAFT ANGLE
  • MRC NATIONAL-SURVEY
  • BONE-MUSCLE INTERACTIONS
  • BONE STRENGTH
  • CAM-TYPE DEFORMITY
  • BODY-MASS INDEX
  • X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • PROXIMAL FEMUR
  • SEXUAL-DIMORPHISM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Age at Onset of Walking in Infancy Is Associated With Hip Shape in Early Old Age. / Ireland, Alex (Corresponding Author); Saunders, Fiona R; Muthuri, Stella G; Pavlova, Anastasia; Hardy, Rebecca; Martin, Kathryn; Barr, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Aspden, Richard M; Gregory, Jenny; Cooper, Rachel.

In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, 03.2019, p. 455-463.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ireland, Alex ; Saunders, Fiona R ; Muthuri, Stella G ; Pavlova, Anastasia ; Hardy, Rebecca ; Martin, Kathryn ; Barr, Rebecca ; Kuh, Diana ; Aspden, Richard M ; Gregory, Jenny ; Cooper, Rachel. / Age at Onset of Walking in Infancy Is Associated With Hip Shape in Early Old Age. In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2019 ; Vol. 34, No. 3. pp. 455-463.
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AU - Martin, Kathryn

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N2 - Bones' shapes and structures adapt to the muscle and reaction forces they experience during everyday movements. Onset of independent walking, at approximately 12 months, represents the first postnatal exposure of the lower limbs to the large forces associated with bipedal movements, and, accordingly, earlier walking is associated with greater bone strength. However, associations between early life loading and joint shape have not been explored.We therefore examined associations between walking age and hip shape at age 60‐64y in 1423 individuals (740 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally‐representative British birth cohort. Walking age in months was obtained from maternal interview at age 2y. Ten modes of variation in hip shape (HM1‐HM10), described by statistical shape models, were ascertained from dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) images.In sex‐adjusted analyses, earlier walking age was associated with higher HM1 and HM7 scores; these associations were maintained after further adjustment for height, body composition and socioeconomic position. Earlier walking was also associated with lower HM2 scores in women only, and lower HM4 scores in men only. Taken together, this suggests that earlier walkers have proportionately larger (HM4) and flatter (HM1,4) femoral heads, wider (HM1,4,7) and flatter (HM1, 7) femoral necks, smaller neck‐shaft angle (HM1,4), anteversion (HM2,7) and development of osteophytes (HM1).These results suggest that age at onset of walking in infancy is associated with variations in hip shape in older age. Early walkers have a larger femoral head and neck and smaller neck‐shaft angle; these features are associated with reduced hip fracture risk, but also represent an osteoarthritic‐like phenotype. Unlike results of previous studies of walking age and bone mass, associations in this study were not affected by adjustment for lean mass suggesting that associations may relate directly to skeletal loading in early life when joint shape changes rapidly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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