Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in North East Scotland: The PINE study

Robert Caslake, Kate Taylor, Neil Scott, Joanna Gordon, Clare Harris, Katie Wilde, Alison Murray, Carl Counsell

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Abstract

There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies.

Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed.

Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7–31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5–20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55–2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2–17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration.

The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-521
Number of pages7
JournalParkinsonism & Related Disorders
Volume19
Issue number5
Early online date21 Jan 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2013

Fingerprint

Parkinsonian Disorders
Scotland
Social Class
Parkinson Disease
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
Meta-Analysis
Cohort Studies
Delayed Diagnosis
Population Density
Population
Primary Health Care
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Parkinson's disease
  • parkinsonism
  • incidence
  • social class
  • meta-analysis

Cite this

@article{51573a6a23b94d77b6a7858492649310,
title = "Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in North East Scotland: The PINE study",
abstract = "There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies.Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy.Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed.Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61{\%} men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 25.7–31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95{\%} CI 15.5–20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95{\%} CI 1.55–2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95{\%} CI 12.2–17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 95{\%}), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration.The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.",
keywords = "Parkinson's disease, parkinsonism, incidence, social class, meta-analysis",
author = "Robert Caslake and Kate Taylor and Neil Scott and Joanna Gordon and Clare Harris and Katie Wilde and Alison Murray and Carl Counsell",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.",
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language = "English",
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T1 - Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in North East Scotland

T2 - The PINE study

AU - Caslake, Robert

AU - Taylor, Kate

AU - Scott, Neil

AU - Gordon, Joanna

AU - Harris, Clare

AU - Wilde, Katie

AU - Murray, Alison

AU - Counsell, Carl

N1 - Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PY - 2013/5

Y1 - 2013/5

N2 - There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies.Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy.Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed.Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7–31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5–20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55–2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2–17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration.The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

AB - There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies.Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy.Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed.Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7–31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5–20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55–2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2–17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration.The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

KW - Parkinson's disease

KW - parkinsonism

KW - incidence

KW - social class

KW - meta-analysis

U2 - 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.01.014

DO - 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.01.014

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 515

EP - 521

JO - Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

JF - Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

SN - 1353-8020

IS - 5

ER -