Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men

A M Johnstone, E Shannon, Stephen Whybrow, C A Reid, R J Stubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of (1) ingesting mandatory snacks v. no snacks and (2) the composition of isoenergetically-dense snacks high in protein, fat or carbohydrate, on food intake and energy intake (EI) in eight men with ad libitum access to a diet of fixed composition. Subjects were each studied four times in a 9 d protocol per treatment. On days 1-2, subjects were given a medium-fat maintenance diet estimated at 1.6 x resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3-9, subjects consumed three mandatory isoenergetic, isoenergetically dense (380 kJ/100 g) snacks at fixed time intervals (11.30, 15.30 and 19.30 hours). Total snack intake comprised 30% of the subjects' estimated daily energy requirements. The treatments were high protein (HP), high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF) and no snack (NS). The order was randomized across subjects in a counterbalanced, Latin-square design. During the remainder of the day, subjects had ad libitum (meal size and frequency) access to a covertly manipulated medium-fat diet of fixed composition (fat:carbohydrate:protein, 40:47:13 by energy), energy density 550 kJ/100 g. All foods eaten were investigator-weighed before ingestion and left-overs were weighed after ingestion. Subjective hunger and satiety feelings were tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales. Ad libitum EI amounted to 13.9 MJ/d on the NS treatment compared with 11.7, 11.7 and 12.2 MJ/d on the HP, HC and HF diets respectively (F(3,21) 5.35; P = 0.007, SED 0.66). Total EI values were not significantly different at 14.6, 14.5, 15.0 and 14.2 MJ/d respectively. Snack composition did not differentially affect total daily food intake or EI. Average daily hunger was unaffected by the composition of the snacks. Only at 12.00 hours did subjects feel significantly more hungry during the NS condition, relative to the other dietary treatments (F(3,18) 4.42; P = 0.017). Body weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, snacking per se led to compensatory adjustments in feeding behaviour in lean men. Snack composition (with energy density controlled) did not affect the amount eaten of a diet of fixed composition. Results may differ in real life where subjects can alter both composition and amount of food they eat and energy density is not controlled.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-14
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume83
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2000

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Snacks
Energy Intake
Weights and Measures
Food
Fats
Eating
Carbohydrates
Diet
Hunger
Proteins
Social Adjustment
Basal Metabolism
High Fat Diet
Feeding Behavior
Therapeutics
Clinical Protocols
Visual Analog Scale
Meals
Emotions

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Appetite
  • Body Weight
  • Diet
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Eating
  • Energy Intake
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Male

Cite this

Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men. / Johnstone, A M; Shannon, E; Whybrow, Stephen; Reid, C A; Stubbs, R J.

In: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 83, No. 1, 01.2000, p. 7-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of (1) ingesting mandatory snacks v. no snacks and (2) the composition of isoenergetically-dense snacks high in protein, fat or carbohydrate, on food intake and energy intake (EI) in eight men with ad libitum access to a diet of fixed composition. Subjects were each studied four times in a 9 d protocol per treatment. On days 1-2, subjects were given a medium-fat maintenance diet estimated at 1.6 x resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3-9, subjects consumed three mandatory isoenergetic, isoenergetically dense (380 kJ/100 g) snacks at fixed time intervals (11.30, 15.30 and 19.30 hours). Total snack intake comprised 30% of the subjects' estimated daily energy requirements. The treatments were high protein (HP), high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF) and no snack (NS). The order was randomized across subjects in a counterbalanced, Latin-square design. During the remainder of the day, subjects had ad libitum (meal size and frequency) access to a covertly manipulated medium-fat diet of fixed composition (fat:carbohydrate:protein, 40:47:13 by energy), energy density 550 kJ/100 g. All foods eaten were investigator-weighed before ingestion and left-overs were weighed after ingestion. Subjective hunger and satiety feelings were tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales. Ad libitum EI amounted to 13.9 MJ/d on the NS treatment compared with 11.7, 11.7 and 12.2 MJ/d on the HP, HC and HF diets respectively (F(3,21) 5.35; P = 0.007, SED 0.66). Total EI values were not significantly different at 14.6, 14.5, 15.0 and 14.2 MJ/d respectively. Snack composition did not differentially affect total daily food intake or EI. Average daily hunger was unaffected by the composition of the snacks. Only at 12.00 hours did subjects feel significantly more hungry during the NS condition, relative to the other dietary treatments (F(3,18) 4.42; P = 0.017). Body weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, snacking per se led to compensatory adjustments in feeding behaviour in lean men. Snack composition (with energy density controlled) did not affect the amount eaten of a diet of fixed composition. Results may differ in real life where subjects can alter both composition and amount of food they eat and energy density is not controlled.

AB - The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of (1) ingesting mandatory snacks v. no snacks and (2) the composition of isoenergetically-dense snacks high in protein, fat or carbohydrate, on food intake and energy intake (EI) in eight men with ad libitum access to a diet of fixed composition. Subjects were each studied four times in a 9 d protocol per treatment. On days 1-2, subjects were given a medium-fat maintenance diet estimated at 1.6 x resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3-9, subjects consumed three mandatory isoenergetic, isoenergetically dense (380 kJ/100 g) snacks at fixed time intervals (11.30, 15.30 and 19.30 hours). Total snack intake comprised 30% of the subjects' estimated daily energy requirements. The treatments were high protein (HP), high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF) and no snack (NS). The order was randomized across subjects in a counterbalanced, Latin-square design. During the remainder of the day, subjects had ad libitum (meal size and frequency) access to a covertly manipulated medium-fat diet of fixed composition (fat:carbohydrate:protein, 40:47:13 by energy), energy density 550 kJ/100 g. All foods eaten were investigator-weighed before ingestion and left-overs were weighed after ingestion. Subjective hunger and satiety feelings were tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales. Ad libitum EI amounted to 13.9 MJ/d on the NS treatment compared with 11.7, 11.7 and 12.2 MJ/d on the HP, HC and HF diets respectively (F(3,21) 5.35; P = 0.007, SED 0.66). Total EI values were not significantly different at 14.6, 14.5, 15.0 and 14.2 MJ/d respectively. Snack composition did not differentially affect total daily food intake or EI. Average daily hunger was unaffected by the composition of the snacks. Only at 12.00 hours did subjects feel significantly more hungry during the NS condition, relative to the other dietary treatments (F(3,18) 4.42; P = 0.017). Body weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, snacking per se led to compensatory adjustments in feeding behaviour in lean men. Snack composition (with energy density controlled) did not affect the amount eaten of a diet of fixed composition. Results may differ in real life where subjects can alter both composition and amount of food they eat and energy density is not controlled.

KW - Adult

KW - Analysis of Variance

KW - Appetite

KW - Body Weight

KW - Diet

KW - Dietary Carbohydrates

KW - Dietary Fats

KW - Dietary Proteins

KW - Eating

KW - Energy Intake

KW - Humans

KW - Hunger

KW - Male

M3 - Article

VL - 83

SP - 7

EP - 14

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 1

ER -