Bedmap2

improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

P. Fretwell, H. D. Pritchard, D. G. Vaughan, J. L. Bamber, N. E. Barrand, R. Bell, C. Bianchi, R. G. Bingham, D. D. Blankenship, G. Casassa, G. Catania, D. Callens, H. Conway, A. J. Cook, H. F. J. Corr, D. Damaske, V. Damm, F. Ferraccioli, R. Forsberg, S. Fujita & 40 others Y. Gim, P. Gogineni, J. A. Griggs, R. C. A. Hindmarsh, P. Holmlund, J. W. Holt, R. W. Jacobel, A. Jenkins, W. Jokat, T. Jordan, E. C. King, J. Kohler, W. Krabill, M. Riger-Kusk, K. A. Langley, G. Leitchenkov, C. Leuschen, B. P. Luyendyk, K. Matsuoka, J. Mouginot, F. O. Nitsche, Y. Nogi, O. A. Nost, S. V. Popov, E. Rignot, D. M. Rippin, A. Rivera, J. Roberts, N. Ross, M. J. Siegert, A. M. Smith, D. Steinhage, M. Studinger, B. Sun, B. K. Tinto, B. C. Welch, D. Wilson, D. A. Young, C. Xiangbin, A. Zirizzotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved coverage of data has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3) and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m) are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6 % greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10 %. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-393
Number of pages19
JournalThe Cryosphere
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2013

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ice sheet
ice
ice thickness
Antarctica
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seafloor
sea level
valley
basin
modeling
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Fretwell, P., Pritchard, H. D., Vaughan, D. G., Bamber, J. L., Barrand, N. E., Bell, R., ... Zirizzotti, A. (2013). Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 7(1), 375-393. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-375-2013

Bedmap2 : improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica. / Fretwell, P.; Pritchard, H. D.; Vaughan, D. G.; Bamber, J. L.; Barrand, N. E.; Bell, R.; Bianchi, C.; Bingham, R. G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Casassa, G.; Catania, G.; Callens, D.; Conway, H.; Cook, A. J.; Corr, H. F. J.; Damaske, D.; Damm, V.; Ferraccioli, F.; Forsberg, R.; Fujita, S.; Gim, Y.; Gogineni, P.; Griggs, J. A.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Holmlund, P.; Holt, J. W.; Jacobel, R. W.; Jenkins, A.; Jokat, W.; Jordan, T.; King, E. C.; Kohler, J.; Krabill, W.; Riger-Kusk, M.; Langley, K. A.; Leitchenkov, G.; Leuschen, C.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Matsuoka, K.; Mouginot, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Nogi, Y.; Nost, O. A.; Popov, S. V.; Rignot, E.; Rippin, D. M.; Rivera, A.; Roberts, J.; Ross, N.; Siegert, M. J.; Smith, A. M.; Steinhage, D.; Studinger, M.; Sun, B.; Tinto, B. K.; Welch, B. C.; Wilson, D.; Young, D. A.; Xiangbin, C.; Zirizzotti, A.

In: The Cryosphere, Vol. 7, No. 1, 28.02.2013, p. 375-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fretwell, P, Pritchard, HD, Vaughan, DG, Bamber, JL, Barrand, NE, Bell, R, Bianchi, C, Bingham, RG, Blankenship, DD, Casassa, G, Catania, G, Callens, D, Conway, H, Cook, AJ, Corr, HFJ, Damaske, D, Damm, V, Ferraccioli, F, Forsberg, R, Fujita, S, Gim, Y, Gogineni, P, Griggs, JA, Hindmarsh, RCA, Holmlund, P, Holt, JW, Jacobel, RW, Jenkins, A, Jokat, W, Jordan, T, King, EC, Kohler, J, Krabill, W, Riger-Kusk, M, Langley, KA, Leitchenkov, G, Leuschen, C, Luyendyk, BP, Matsuoka, K, Mouginot, J, Nitsche, FO, Nogi, Y, Nost, OA, Popov, SV, Rignot, E, Rippin, DM, Rivera, A, Roberts, J, Ross, N, Siegert, MJ, Smith, AM, Steinhage, D, Studinger, M, Sun, B, Tinto, BK, Welch, BC, Wilson, D, Young, DA, Xiangbin, C & Zirizzotti, A 2013, 'Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica', The Cryosphere, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 375-393. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-375-2013
Fretwell P, Pritchard HD, Vaughan DG, Bamber JL, Barrand NE, Bell R et al. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica. The Cryosphere. 2013 Feb 28;7(1):375-393. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-375-2013
Fretwell, P. ; Pritchard, H. D. ; Vaughan, D. G. ; Bamber, J. L. ; Barrand, N. E. ; Bell, R. ; Bianchi, C. ; Bingham, R. G. ; Blankenship, D. D. ; Casassa, G. ; Catania, G. ; Callens, D. ; Conway, H. ; Cook, A. J. ; Corr, H. F. J. ; Damaske, D. ; Damm, V. ; Ferraccioli, F. ; Forsberg, R. ; Fujita, S. ; Gim, Y. ; Gogineni, P. ; Griggs, J. A. ; Hindmarsh, R. C. A. ; Holmlund, P. ; Holt, J. W. ; Jacobel, R. W. ; Jenkins, A. ; Jokat, W. ; Jordan, T. ; King, E. C. ; Kohler, J. ; Krabill, W. ; Riger-Kusk, M. ; Langley, K. A. ; Leitchenkov, G. ; Leuschen, C. ; Luyendyk, B. P. ; Matsuoka, K. ; Mouginot, J. ; Nitsche, F. O. ; Nogi, Y. ; Nost, O. A. ; Popov, S. V. ; Rignot, E. ; Rippin, D. M. ; Rivera, A. ; Roberts, J. ; Ross, N. ; Siegert, M. J. ; Smith, A. M. ; Steinhage, D. ; Studinger, M. ; Sun, B. ; Tinto, B. K. ; Welch, B. C. ; Wilson, D. ; Young, D. A. ; Xiangbin, C. ; Zirizzotti, A. / Bedmap2 : improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica. In: The Cryosphere. 2013 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 375-393.
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title = "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica",
abstract = "We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved coverage of data has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3) and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m) are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6 {\%} greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10 {\%}. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.",
author = "P. Fretwell and Pritchard, {H. D.} and Vaughan, {D. G.} and Bamber, {J. L.} and Barrand, {N. E.} and R. Bell and C. Bianchi and Bingham, {R. G.} and Blankenship, {D. D.} and G. Casassa and G. Catania and D. Callens and H. Conway and Cook, {A. J.} and Corr, {H. F. J.} and D. Damaske and V. Damm and F. Ferraccioli and R. Forsberg and S. Fujita and Y. Gim and P. Gogineni and Griggs, {J. A.} and Hindmarsh, {R. C. A.} and P. Holmlund and Holt, {J. W.} and Jacobel, {R. W.} and A. Jenkins and W. Jokat and T. Jordan and King, {E. C.} and J. Kohler and W. Krabill and M. Riger-Kusk and Langley, {K. A.} and G. Leitchenkov and C. Leuschen and Luyendyk, {B. P.} and K. Matsuoka and J. Mouginot and Nitsche, {F. O.} and Y. Nogi and Nost, {O. A.} and Popov, {S. V.} and E. Rignot and Rippin, {D. M.} and A. Rivera and J. Roberts and N. Ross and Siegert, {M. J.} and Smith, {A. M.} and D. Steinhage and M. Studinger and B. Sun and Tinto, {B. K.} and Welch, {B. C.} and D. Wilson and Young, {D. A.} and C. Xiangbin and A. Zirizzotti",
note = "Supplementary material related to this article is available online at: http://www.the-cryosphere.net/7/375/2013/tc-7-375-2013-supplement.pdf. Acknowledgements. The authorship of this publication reflects the institutes and individuals who have acquired data since the Bedmap1 compilation, however, many other scientists and support staff contributed to collecting and processing these data, and we are indebted to them all for their generosity in sharing their results. The many funding bodies, and specific grants that contributed to data acquisition are too numerous to be listed, but the compilation of Bedmap2 products was undertaken within the British Antarctic Survey’s programme, Polar Science for Planet Earth.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Bedmap2

T2 - improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

AU - Fretwell, P.

AU - Pritchard, H. D.

AU - Vaughan, D. G.

AU - Bamber, J. L.

AU - Barrand, N. E.

AU - Bell, R.

AU - Bianchi, C.

AU - Bingham, R. G.

AU - Blankenship, D. D.

AU - Casassa, G.

AU - Catania, G.

AU - Callens, D.

AU - Conway, H.

AU - Cook, A. J.

AU - Corr, H. F. J.

AU - Damaske, D.

AU - Damm, V.

AU - Ferraccioli, F.

AU - Forsberg, R.

AU - Fujita, S.

AU - Gim, Y.

AU - Gogineni, P.

AU - Griggs, J. A.

AU - Hindmarsh, R. C. A.

AU - Holmlund, P.

AU - Holt, J. W.

AU - Jacobel, R. W.

AU - Jenkins, A.

AU - Jokat, W.

AU - Jordan, T.

AU - King, E. C.

AU - Kohler, J.

AU - Krabill, W.

AU - Riger-Kusk, M.

AU - Langley, K. A.

AU - Leitchenkov, G.

AU - Leuschen, C.

AU - Luyendyk, B. P.

AU - Matsuoka, K.

AU - Mouginot, J.

AU - Nitsche, F. O.

AU - Nogi, Y.

AU - Nost, O. A.

AU - Popov, S. V.

AU - Rignot, E.

AU - Rippin, D. M.

AU - Rivera, A.

AU - Roberts, J.

AU - Ross, N.

AU - Siegert, M. J.

AU - Smith, A. M.

AU - Steinhage, D.

AU - Studinger, M.

AU - Sun, B.

AU - Tinto, B. K.

AU - Welch, B. C.

AU - Wilson, D.

AU - Young, D. A.

AU - Xiangbin, C.

AU - Zirizzotti, A.

N1 - Supplementary material related to this article is available online at: http://www.the-cryosphere.net/7/375/2013/tc-7-375-2013-supplement.pdf. Acknowledgements. The authorship of this publication reflects the institutes and individuals who have acquired data since the Bedmap1 compilation, however, many other scientists and support staff contributed to collecting and processing these data, and we are indebted to them all for their generosity in sharing their results. The many funding bodies, and specific grants that contributed to data acquisition are too numerous to be listed, but the compilation of Bedmap2 products was undertaken within the British Antarctic Survey’s programme, Polar Science for Planet Earth.

PY - 2013/2/28

Y1 - 2013/2/28

N2 - We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved coverage of data has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3) and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m) are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6 % greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10 %. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.

AB - We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved coverage of data has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3) and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m) are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6 % greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10 %. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.

U2 - 10.5194/tc-7-375-2013

DO - 10.5194/tc-7-375-2013

M3 - Article

VL - 7

SP - 375

EP - 393

JO - The Cryosphere

JF - The Cryosphere

SN - 1994-0416

IS - 1

ER -