Comparative genomic analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens KN400, a strain with enhanced capacity for extracellular electron transfer and electricity production

Jessica E Butler, Nelson D Young, Muktak Aklujkar, Derek R Lovley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: A new strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, strain KN400, produces more electrical current in microbial fuel cells and reduces insoluble Fe(III) oxides much faster than the wildtype strain, PCA. The genome of KN400 was compared to wildtype with the goal of discovering how the network for extracellular electron transfer has changed and how these two strains evolved.

RESULTS: Both genomes were re-annotated, resulting in 14 fewer genes (net) in the PCA genome; 28 fewer (net) in the KN400 genome; and ca. 400 gene start and stop sites moved. 96% of genes in KN400 had clear orthologs with conserved synteny in PCA. Most of the remaining genes were in regions of genomic mobility and were strain-specific or conserved in other Geobacteraceae, indicating that the changes occurred post-divergence. There were 27,270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between the genomes. There was significant enrichment for SNP locations in non-coding or synonymous amino acid sites, indicating significant selective pressure since the divergence. 25% of orthologs had sequence differences, and this set was enriched in phosphorylation and ATP-dependent enzymes. Substantial sequence differences (at least 12 non-synonymous SNP/kb) were found in 3.6% of the orthologs, and this set was enriched in cytochromes and integral membrane proteins. Genes known to be involved in electron transport, those used in the metabolic cell model, and those that exhibit changes in expression during growth in microbial fuel cells were examined in detail.

CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in external electron transfer in the KN400 strain does not appear to be due to novel gene acquisition, but rather to changes in the common metabolic network. The increase in electron transfer rate and yield in KN400 may be due to changes in carbon flux towards oxidation pathways and to changes in ATP metabolism, both of which indicate that the overall energy state of the cell may be different. The electrically conductive pili appear to be unchanged, but cytochrome folding, localization, and redox potentials may all be affected, which would alter the electrical connection between the cell and the substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number471
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2012

Fingerprint

Geobacter
Electricity
Electrons
Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis
Genome
Bioelectric Energy Sources
Genes
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Cytochromes
Adenosine Triphosphate
Synteny
Carbon Cycle
Electron Transport
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Oxides
Oxidation-Reduction
Membrane Proteins
Phosphorylation
Amino Acids
Enzymes

Keywords

  • bioelectric energy sources
  • comparative genomic hybridization
  • electron transport
  • gene expression regulation, bacterial
  • genome, bacterial
  • Geobacter
  • metabolic networks and pathways
  • molecular sequence annotation
  • polymorphism, single nucleotide

Cite this

Comparative genomic analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens KN400, a strain with enhanced capacity for extracellular electron transfer and electricity production. / Butler, Jessica E; Young, Nelson D; Aklujkar, Muktak; Lovley, Derek R.

In: BMC Genomics, Vol. 13, 471, 12.09.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: A new strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, strain KN400, produces more electrical current in microbial fuel cells and reduces insoluble Fe(III) oxides much faster than the wildtype strain, PCA. The genome of KN400 was compared to wildtype with the goal of discovering how the network for extracellular electron transfer has changed and how these two strains evolved.RESULTS: Both genomes were re-annotated, resulting in 14 fewer genes (net) in the PCA genome; 28 fewer (net) in the KN400 genome; and ca. 400 gene start and stop sites moved. 96{\%} of genes in KN400 had clear orthologs with conserved synteny in PCA. Most of the remaining genes were in regions of genomic mobility and were strain-specific or conserved in other Geobacteraceae, indicating that the changes occurred post-divergence. There were 27,270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between the genomes. There was significant enrichment for SNP locations in non-coding or synonymous amino acid sites, indicating significant selective pressure since the divergence. 25{\%} of orthologs had sequence differences, and this set was enriched in phosphorylation and ATP-dependent enzymes. Substantial sequence differences (at least 12 non-synonymous SNP/kb) were found in 3.6{\%} of the orthologs, and this set was enriched in cytochromes and integral membrane proteins. Genes known to be involved in electron transport, those used in the metabolic cell model, and those that exhibit changes in expression during growth in microbial fuel cells were examined in detail.CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in external electron transfer in the KN400 strain does not appear to be due to novel gene acquisition, but rather to changes in the common metabolic network. The increase in electron transfer rate and yield in KN400 may be due to changes in carbon flux towards oxidation pathways and to changes in ATP metabolism, both of which indicate that the overall energy state of the cell may be different. The electrically conductive pili appear to be unchanged, but cytochrome folding, localization, and redox potentials may all be affected, which would alter the electrical connection between the cell and the substrate.",
keywords = "bioelectric energy sources, comparative genomic hybridization, electron transport, gene expression regulation, bacterial, genome, bacterial, Geobacter, metabolic networks and pathways, molecular sequence annotation, polymorphism, single nucleotide",
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T1 - Comparative genomic analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens KN400, a strain with enhanced capacity for extracellular electron transfer and electricity production

AU - Butler, Jessica E

AU - Young, Nelson D

AU - Aklujkar, Muktak

AU - Lovley, Derek R

PY - 2012/9/12

Y1 - 2012/9/12

N2 - BACKGROUND: A new strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, strain KN400, produces more electrical current in microbial fuel cells and reduces insoluble Fe(III) oxides much faster than the wildtype strain, PCA. The genome of KN400 was compared to wildtype with the goal of discovering how the network for extracellular electron transfer has changed and how these two strains evolved.RESULTS: Both genomes were re-annotated, resulting in 14 fewer genes (net) in the PCA genome; 28 fewer (net) in the KN400 genome; and ca. 400 gene start and stop sites moved. 96% of genes in KN400 had clear orthologs with conserved synteny in PCA. Most of the remaining genes were in regions of genomic mobility and were strain-specific or conserved in other Geobacteraceae, indicating that the changes occurred post-divergence. There were 27,270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between the genomes. There was significant enrichment for SNP locations in non-coding or synonymous amino acid sites, indicating significant selective pressure since the divergence. 25% of orthologs had sequence differences, and this set was enriched in phosphorylation and ATP-dependent enzymes. Substantial sequence differences (at least 12 non-synonymous SNP/kb) were found in 3.6% of the orthologs, and this set was enriched in cytochromes and integral membrane proteins. Genes known to be involved in electron transport, those used in the metabolic cell model, and those that exhibit changes in expression during growth in microbial fuel cells were examined in detail.CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in external electron transfer in the KN400 strain does not appear to be due to novel gene acquisition, but rather to changes in the common metabolic network. The increase in electron transfer rate and yield in KN400 may be due to changes in carbon flux towards oxidation pathways and to changes in ATP metabolism, both of which indicate that the overall energy state of the cell may be different. The electrically conductive pili appear to be unchanged, but cytochrome folding, localization, and redox potentials may all be affected, which would alter the electrical connection between the cell and the substrate.

AB - BACKGROUND: A new strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, strain KN400, produces more electrical current in microbial fuel cells and reduces insoluble Fe(III) oxides much faster than the wildtype strain, PCA. The genome of KN400 was compared to wildtype with the goal of discovering how the network for extracellular electron transfer has changed and how these two strains evolved.RESULTS: Both genomes were re-annotated, resulting in 14 fewer genes (net) in the PCA genome; 28 fewer (net) in the KN400 genome; and ca. 400 gene start and stop sites moved. 96% of genes in KN400 had clear orthologs with conserved synteny in PCA. Most of the remaining genes were in regions of genomic mobility and were strain-specific or conserved in other Geobacteraceae, indicating that the changes occurred post-divergence. There were 27,270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between the genomes. There was significant enrichment for SNP locations in non-coding or synonymous amino acid sites, indicating significant selective pressure since the divergence. 25% of orthologs had sequence differences, and this set was enriched in phosphorylation and ATP-dependent enzymes. Substantial sequence differences (at least 12 non-synonymous SNP/kb) were found in 3.6% of the orthologs, and this set was enriched in cytochromes and integral membrane proteins. Genes known to be involved in electron transport, those used in the metabolic cell model, and those that exhibit changes in expression during growth in microbial fuel cells were examined in detail.CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in external electron transfer in the KN400 strain does not appear to be due to novel gene acquisition, but rather to changes in the common metabolic network. The increase in electron transfer rate and yield in KN400 may be due to changes in carbon flux towards oxidation pathways and to changes in ATP metabolism, both of which indicate that the overall energy state of the cell may be different. The electrically conductive pili appear to be unchanged, but cytochrome folding, localization, and redox potentials may all be affected, which would alter the electrical connection between the cell and the substrate.

KW - bioelectric energy sources

KW - comparative genomic hybridization

KW - electron transport

KW - gene expression regulation, bacterial

KW - genome, bacterial

KW - Geobacter

KW - metabolic networks and pathways

KW - molecular sequence annotation

KW - polymorphism, single nucleotide

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2164-13-471

DO - 10.1186/1471-2164-13-471

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - BMC Genomics

JF - BMC Genomics

SN - 1471-2164

M1 - 471

ER -