In this chapter, we define, conceptualize, and exemplify competition for ecosystem services derived from land. Competition for land-based ecosystem services arises when utilization of an ecosystem service by one actor reduces the possibility of other actors to use the same or other ecosystem services. Therefore, we focus on trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and argue that the functional relationships between the trade-offs are crucial in shaping how land-use competition plays out. We use this conceptualization of competition for land-based ecosystem services as well as the closely related concepts of trade-off and synergies as a framework to interpret the five case studies in this section, which provide a unique and rich overview of land-use competition in terms of actors involved, geographic coverage, spatial scale, and ecosystem services. These studies convey important insights into opportunities and challenges of intervening into competition for land-based resources and can inform efforts to improve land governance.