Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India

Peter Dominic Clift, A. Carter, M. Krol, E. Kirby

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Indus Group is a Paleogene, syntectonic sequence from the Indus Suture Zone of the Ladakh Himalaya, India. Overlying several pre-collisional tectonic units, it constrains the timing and nature of India's collision with Eurasia in the western Himalaya. Field and petrographic data now allow Mesozoic-Paleocene deep-water sediments underlying the Indus Group to be assigned to three pre-collisional units: the Jurutze Formation (the forearc basin to the Cretaceous-Paleocene Eurasian active margin), the Khalsi Flysch (a Eurasian forearc sequence recording collapse of the Indian continental margin and ophiolite obduction), and the Lamayuru Group (the Mesozoic passive margin of India). Cobbles of neritic limestone, deep-water radiolarian chert and mafic igneous rocks, derived from the south (i.e. from India), are recognized within the upper Khalsi Flysch and the unconformably overlying fluvial sandstones of the Chogdo Formation, the base of the Indus Group. The Chogdo Formation is the first unit to overlie all three pre-collisional units and constrains the age of India-Eurasia collision to being no younger than latest Ypresian time (>49 Ma), consistent with marine magnetic data suggesting initial collision in the Arabian Sea region at c. 55 Ma. The cutting of equatorial Tethyan circulation north of India at that time may have been a trigger to the major changes in global palaeoceanography seen at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. New Ar-40/Ar-39, apatite fission-track and illite crystallinity data from the Ladakh Batholith and Indus Group show that the batholith, representing the old active margin of Eurasia, experienced rapid Eocene cooling after collision, but was not significantly reheated when the Indus Group basin was inverted during north-directed Miocene thrusting (23-20 Ma). Subsequent erosion has preferentially removed 5-6 km (c. 200 degreesC) over much of the exposed Indus Group, but only c. 2 km from the Ladakh Batholith. Reworking of this material into the Indus fan may complicate efforts to interpret palaeo-erosion patterns from the deep-sea sedimentary record.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.)
Subtitle of host publicationGeological Society of London Special Publications
PublisherGeological Society of London
Pages97-116
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)1-8623-9111-4
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • FORE-ARC BASIN
  • SUTURE ZONE
  • NORTHERN INDIA
  • NORTHWESTERN HIMALAYA
  • WESTERN HIMALAYA
  • TIBETAN PLATEAU
  • AGE CONSTRAINTS
  • FISSION TRACKS
  • MINIMUM AGE
  • NW HIMALAYA

Cite this

Clift, P. D., Carter, A., Krol, M., & Kirby, E. (2002). Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. In The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) : Geological Society of London Special Publications (pp. 97-116). Geological Society of London.

Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. / Clift, Peter Dominic; Carter, A.; Krol, M.; Kirby, E.

The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) : Geological Society of London Special Publications. Geological Society of London, 2002. p. 97-116.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Clift, PD, Carter, A, Krol, M & Kirby, E 2002, Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. in The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) : Geological Society of London Special Publications. Geological Society of London, pp. 97-116.
Clift PD, Carter A, Krol M, Kirby E. Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. In The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) : Geological Society of London Special Publications. Geological Society of London. 2002. p. 97-116
Clift, Peter Dominic ; Carter, A. ; Krol, M. ; Kirby, E. / Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) : Geological Society of London Special Publications. Geological Society of London, 2002. pp. 97-116
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abstract = "The Indus Group is a Paleogene, syntectonic sequence from the Indus Suture Zone of the Ladakh Himalaya, India. Overlying several pre-collisional tectonic units, it constrains the timing and nature of India's collision with Eurasia in the western Himalaya. Field and petrographic data now allow Mesozoic-Paleocene deep-water sediments underlying the Indus Group to be assigned to three pre-collisional units: the Jurutze Formation (the forearc basin to the Cretaceous-Paleocene Eurasian active margin), the Khalsi Flysch (a Eurasian forearc sequence recording collapse of the Indian continental margin and ophiolite obduction), and the Lamayuru Group (the Mesozoic passive margin of India). Cobbles of neritic limestone, deep-water radiolarian chert and mafic igneous rocks, derived from the south (i.e. from India), are recognized within the upper Khalsi Flysch and the unconformably overlying fluvial sandstones of the Chogdo Formation, the base of the Indus Group. The Chogdo Formation is the first unit to overlie all three pre-collisional units and constrains the age of India-Eurasia collision to being no younger than latest Ypresian time (>49 Ma), consistent with marine magnetic data suggesting initial collision in the Arabian Sea region at c. 55 Ma. The cutting of equatorial Tethyan circulation north of India at that time may have been a trigger to the major changes in global palaeoceanography seen at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. New Ar-40/Ar-39, apatite fission-track and illite crystallinity data from the Ladakh Batholith and Indus Group show that the batholith, representing the old active margin of Eurasia, experienced rapid Eocene cooling after collision, but was not significantly reheated when the Indus Group basin was inverted during north-directed Miocene thrusting (23-20 Ma). Subsequent erosion has preferentially removed 5-6 km (c. 200 degreesC) over much of the exposed Indus Group, but only c. 2 km from the Ladakh Batholith. Reworking of this material into the Indus fan may complicate efforts to interpret palaeo-erosion patterns from the deep-sea sedimentary record.",
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T1 - Constraints on India-Eurasia Collision in the Arabian Sea Region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India

AU - Clift, Peter Dominic

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AU - Krol, M.

AU - Kirby, E.

N1 - In: The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.) Geological Society of London Special Publications

PY - 2002

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N2 - The Indus Group is a Paleogene, syntectonic sequence from the Indus Suture Zone of the Ladakh Himalaya, India. Overlying several pre-collisional tectonic units, it constrains the timing and nature of India's collision with Eurasia in the western Himalaya. Field and petrographic data now allow Mesozoic-Paleocene deep-water sediments underlying the Indus Group to be assigned to three pre-collisional units: the Jurutze Formation (the forearc basin to the Cretaceous-Paleocene Eurasian active margin), the Khalsi Flysch (a Eurasian forearc sequence recording collapse of the Indian continental margin and ophiolite obduction), and the Lamayuru Group (the Mesozoic passive margin of India). Cobbles of neritic limestone, deep-water radiolarian chert and mafic igneous rocks, derived from the south (i.e. from India), are recognized within the upper Khalsi Flysch and the unconformably overlying fluvial sandstones of the Chogdo Formation, the base of the Indus Group. The Chogdo Formation is the first unit to overlie all three pre-collisional units and constrains the age of India-Eurasia collision to being no younger than latest Ypresian time (>49 Ma), consistent with marine magnetic data suggesting initial collision in the Arabian Sea region at c. 55 Ma. The cutting of equatorial Tethyan circulation north of India at that time may have been a trigger to the major changes in global palaeoceanography seen at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. New Ar-40/Ar-39, apatite fission-track and illite crystallinity data from the Ladakh Batholith and Indus Group show that the batholith, representing the old active margin of Eurasia, experienced rapid Eocene cooling after collision, but was not significantly reheated when the Indus Group basin was inverted during north-directed Miocene thrusting (23-20 Ma). Subsequent erosion has preferentially removed 5-6 km (c. 200 degreesC) over much of the exposed Indus Group, but only c. 2 km from the Ladakh Batholith. Reworking of this material into the Indus fan may complicate efforts to interpret palaeo-erosion patterns from the deep-sea sedimentary record.

AB - The Indus Group is a Paleogene, syntectonic sequence from the Indus Suture Zone of the Ladakh Himalaya, India. Overlying several pre-collisional tectonic units, it constrains the timing and nature of India's collision with Eurasia in the western Himalaya. Field and petrographic data now allow Mesozoic-Paleocene deep-water sediments underlying the Indus Group to be assigned to three pre-collisional units: the Jurutze Formation (the forearc basin to the Cretaceous-Paleocene Eurasian active margin), the Khalsi Flysch (a Eurasian forearc sequence recording collapse of the Indian continental margin and ophiolite obduction), and the Lamayuru Group (the Mesozoic passive margin of India). Cobbles of neritic limestone, deep-water radiolarian chert and mafic igneous rocks, derived from the south (i.e. from India), are recognized within the upper Khalsi Flysch and the unconformably overlying fluvial sandstones of the Chogdo Formation, the base of the Indus Group. The Chogdo Formation is the first unit to overlie all three pre-collisional units and constrains the age of India-Eurasia collision to being no younger than latest Ypresian time (>49 Ma), consistent with marine magnetic data suggesting initial collision in the Arabian Sea region at c. 55 Ma. The cutting of equatorial Tethyan circulation north of India at that time may have been a trigger to the major changes in global palaeoceanography seen at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. New Ar-40/Ar-39, apatite fission-track and illite crystallinity data from the Ladakh Batholith and Indus Group show that the batholith, representing the old active margin of Eurasia, experienced rapid Eocene cooling after collision, but was not significantly reheated when the Indus Group basin was inverted during north-directed Miocene thrusting (23-20 Ma). Subsequent erosion has preferentially removed 5-6 km (c. 200 degreesC) over much of the exposed Indus Group, but only c. 2 km from the Ladakh Batholith. Reworking of this material into the Indus fan may complicate efforts to interpret palaeo-erosion patterns from the deep-sea sedimentary record.

KW - FORE-ARC BASIN

KW - SUTURE ZONE

KW - NORTHERN INDIA

KW - NORTHWESTERN HIMALAYA

KW - WESTERN HIMALAYA

KW - TIBETAN PLATEAU

KW - AGE CONSTRAINTS

KW - FISSION TRACKS

KW - MINIMUM AGE

KW - NW HIMALAYA

M3 - Chapter

SN - 1-8623-9111-4

SP - 97

EP - 116

BT - The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea Region (eds. Clift, P.D.; Droon, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Craig, J.)

PB - Geological Society of London

ER -