Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) contributes significantly to high early mortality in the setting of advanced HIV. In resource poor settings, the current HIV disease management approach is focused on commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the same day of HIV diagnosis (‘Test and Treat’). The HIV program in Nigeria does not currently provide CrAg screening for patients with newly diagnosed and advanced HIV disease. We report a case of severe cryptococcal meningitis presenting following the commencement of ART. There is clear benefit in the early commencement of ART among HIV infected patients and to prevent patients lost to follow-up as aimed with the ‘Test & Treat’ approach. However, this approach needs to be balanced against the risk of IRIS and its associated morbidity and mortality when those patients are not being properly evaluated for opportunistic infections being present without overt symptoms.
- Cryptococcal meningitis
- Test and Treat