This paper introduces a DC transmission grid with fault tolerant inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) voltage source converters (VSCs) and using slow protection system based on mechanical DC circuit breakers (CBs). LCL VSC inherently regulates DC fault current to levels that converter can sustain for prolonged periods which avoids IGBT tripping and brings significant advantage in security and reliability aspects. Simple mechanical DC CBs are used at DC bus bars and connecting points of each DC cable, in the same manner as it is normal practice used with AC transmission protection. The protection logic is based on differential methods which gives excellent selectivity and reliability. The fault clearing time is in the order of 30-60ms which allows for reliable protection decision making. The simulation results obtained from a four-terminal DC grid modeled on PSCAD platform confirm successful DC fault isolation and grid recovery for a range of severe DC fault scenarios.
Hajian Foroushani, M., Zhang, L., & Jovcic, D. (2015). DC Transmission Grid with Low Speed Protection using Mechanical DC Circuit Breakers. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 30(3), 1383-1391. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2371618