Do Pharmacy Intervention Reports Adequately Describe Their Interventions? A Template for Intervention Description and Replication Analysis of Reports included in a Systematic Review

Micheal de Barra (Corresponding Author), Claire Scott, Marie Johnston, Marijn de Bruin, Neil Scott, Catriona Matheson, Christine Bond, Margaret Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction Scientific progress and translation of evidence into practice is impeded by poorly described interventions. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) was developed to specify the minimal intervention elements that should be reported.

Objectives (1) To assess the extent to which outpatient pharmacy interventions were adequately reported. (2) To examine the dimension(s) across which reporting quality varies. (3) To examine trial characteristics that predict better reporting.

Methods The sample comprised 86 randomised controlled trials identified in a Cochrane review of the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions on patient health outcomes. Duplicate, independent application of a modified 15-item TIDieR checklist was undertaken to assess the intervention reporting. The reporting/non-reporting of TIDieR items was analysed with principal component analysis to evaluate the dimensionality of reporting quality and regression analyses to assess predictors of reporting quality

In total, 422 (40%) TIDieR items were fully reported, 395 (38%) were partially reported and 231 (22%) were not reported. A further 242 items were deemed not applicable to the specific trials. Reporting quality loaded on one component which accounted for 26% of the variance in TIDieR scores. More recent trials reported a slightly greater number of TIDieR items (0.07 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.13) additional TIDieR items per year of publication). Trials reported an 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.14) additional TIDieR items per unit increase in impact factor (IF) of the journal in which the main report was published.

Conclusions Most trials lacked adequate intervention reporting. This diminished the applied and scientific value of their research. The standard of intervention reporting is, however, gradually increasing and appears somewhat better in journals with higher IFs. The use of the TIDieR checklist to improve reporting could enhance the utility and replicability of trials, and reduce research waste.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere025511
Pages (from-to)e025511
Number of pages8
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number12
Early online date19 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2019



  • checklist
  • clinical trials as topic/standards
  • pharmacy/standards
  • reproducibility of results
  • research report/standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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