Effect of lianas on tree regeneration in gaps and forest understorey in a tropical forest in Ghana

T. Toledo-Aceves, M. D. Swaine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Questions: Do lianas alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration? Are the effects of lianas on tree seedlings moderated by canopy openness? How are patterns of biomass allocation in tree seedlings affected by liana competition?

Location: Tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana.

Methods: Seedlings of the trees Nauclea diderrichii (pioneer), Khaya anthotheca (non-pioneer light demander) and Garcinia kola (non-pioneer shade bearer) were planted with the lianas Acacia kamerunensis (fast growing) and Loeseneriella rowlandii (slow growing) in large and small gaps (ca. 15% and 8% PAR respectively) and in the forest understorey (ca. 4% PAR). Seedling survival, growth and biomass allocation were measured.

Results: Canopy openness moderated the interaction between liana and tree seedlings. The nature of the interaction was both liana and tree species specific and displayed temporal variation. Acacia competition effects were stronger in sites with greater canopy openness. In big gaps, Acacia reduced significantly the biomass of Nauclea by 32% and Khaya by about 50%. Khaya growth in leaf area was five times greater without Acacia, while Nauclea and Garcinia were not affected. Acacia was more plastic than Loeseneriella in response to the environment and the tree species. Our results show that while Loeseneriella, with lower rates of growth, did not affect seedling growth of the three species evaluated, Acacia could alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration.

Conclusions: There is evidence that competitive effects by Acacia on tree regeneration through competition could modify tree species capacity to establish. Effects by lianas at the regeneration phase may have important implications for forest management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)717-728
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Vegetation Science
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008

Keywords

  • allometry
  • competition
  • shade tolerance
  • tree seedling
  • tropical rain forest
  • woody climber
  • rain-forest
  • wet forest
  • canopy gaps
  • dry forest
  • light
  • diversity
  • seedlings
  • growth
  • abundance
  • climber

Cite this

Effect of lianas on tree regeneration in gaps and forest understorey in a tropical forest in Ghana. / Toledo-Aceves, T.; Swaine, M. D.

In: Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 19, No. 5, 10.2008, p. 717-728.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Questions: Do lianas alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration? Are the effects of lianas on tree seedlings moderated by canopy openness? How are patterns of biomass allocation in tree seedlings affected by liana competition?Location: Tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana.Methods: Seedlings of the trees Nauclea diderrichii (pioneer), Khaya anthotheca (non-pioneer light demander) and Garcinia kola (non-pioneer shade bearer) were planted with the lianas Acacia kamerunensis (fast growing) and Loeseneriella rowlandii (slow growing) in large and small gaps (ca. 15{\%} and 8{\%} PAR respectively) and in the forest understorey (ca. 4{\%} PAR). Seedling survival, growth and biomass allocation were measured.Results: Canopy openness moderated the interaction between liana and tree seedlings. The nature of the interaction was both liana and tree species specific and displayed temporal variation. Acacia competition effects were stronger in sites with greater canopy openness. In big gaps, Acacia reduced significantly the biomass of Nauclea by 32{\%} and Khaya by about 50{\%}. Khaya growth in leaf area was five times greater without Acacia, while Nauclea and Garcinia were not affected. Acacia was more plastic than Loeseneriella in response to the environment and the tree species. Our results show that while Loeseneriella, with lower rates of growth, did not affect seedling growth of the three species evaluated, Acacia could alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration.Conclusions: There is evidence that competitive effects by Acacia on tree regeneration through competition could modify tree species capacity to establish. Effects by lianas at the regeneration phase may have important implications for forest management.",
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N2 - Questions: Do lianas alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration? Are the effects of lianas on tree seedlings moderated by canopy openness? How are patterns of biomass allocation in tree seedlings affected by liana competition?Location: Tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana.Methods: Seedlings of the trees Nauclea diderrichii (pioneer), Khaya anthotheca (non-pioneer light demander) and Garcinia kola (non-pioneer shade bearer) were planted with the lianas Acacia kamerunensis (fast growing) and Loeseneriella rowlandii (slow growing) in large and small gaps (ca. 15% and 8% PAR respectively) and in the forest understorey (ca. 4% PAR). Seedling survival, growth and biomass allocation were measured.Results: Canopy openness moderated the interaction between liana and tree seedlings. The nature of the interaction was both liana and tree species specific and displayed temporal variation. Acacia competition effects were stronger in sites with greater canopy openness. In big gaps, Acacia reduced significantly the biomass of Nauclea by 32% and Khaya by about 50%. Khaya growth in leaf area was five times greater without Acacia, while Nauclea and Garcinia were not affected. Acacia was more plastic than Loeseneriella in response to the environment and the tree species. Our results show that while Loeseneriella, with lower rates of growth, did not affect seedling growth of the three species evaluated, Acacia could alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration.Conclusions: There is evidence that competitive effects by Acacia on tree regeneration through competition could modify tree species capacity to establish. Effects by lianas at the regeneration phase may have important implications for forest management.

AB - Questions: Do lianas alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration? Are the effects of lianas on tree seedlings moderated by canopy openness? How are patterns of biomass allocation in tree seedlings affected by liana competition?Location: Tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana.Methods: Seedlings of the trees Nauclea diderrichii (pioneer), Khaya anthotheca (non-pioneer light demander) and Garcinia kola (non-pioneer shade bearer) were planted with the lianas Acacia kamerunensis (fast growing) and Loeseneriella rowlandii (slow growing) in large and small gaps (ca. 15% and 8% PAR respectively) and in the forest understorey (ca. 4% PAR). Seedling survival, growth and biomass allocation were measured.Results: Canopy openness moderated the interaction between liana and tree seedlings. The nature of the interaction was both liana and tree species specific and displayed temporal variation. Acacia competition effects were stronger in sites with greater canopy openness. In big gaps, Acacia reduced significantly the biomass of Nauclea by 32% and Khaya by about 50%. Khaya growth in leaf area was five times greater without Acacia, while Nauclea and Garcinia were not affected. Acacia was more plastic than Loeseneriella in response to the environment and the tree species. Our results show that while Loeseneriella, with lower rates of growth, did not affect seedling growth of the three species evaluated, Acacia could alter the relative success of tree species during regeneration.Conclusions: There is evidence that competitive effects by Acacia on tree regeneration through competition could modify tree species capacity to establish. Effects by lianas at the regeneration phase may have important implications for forest management.

KW - allometry

KW - competition

KW - shade tolerance

KW - tree seedling

KW - tropical rain forest

KW - woody climber

KW - rain-forest

KW - wet forest

KW - canopy gaps

KW - dry forest

KW - light

KW - diversity

KW - seedlings

KW - growth

KW - abundance

KW - climber

U2 - 10.3170/2008-8-18444

DO - 10.3170/2008-8-18444

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 717

EP - 728

JO - Journal of Vegetation Science

JF - Journal of Vegetation Science

SN - 1100-9233

IS - 5

ER -