Elevated copper in urine of Bangladeshi ethnic group living in the United Kingdom

C. Cascio, A. Mulla, R. Vanker, J. Feldmann, A. A. Meharg, R. O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to monitor urinary selenium, copper and zinc in a group of Bangladeshi (n = 54), Indian (n = 25), Pakistani (n = 21), and White Caucasian (n = 23) volunteers living in the UK. The most striking findings were far higher urinary copper levels (P < 0.001) in the Bangladeshi group (median: 30.2 µg Cu/l) compared to other ethnicities (15.6 µg Cu/l, Pakistani; 14.8 µg Cu/l, Indian; 10.5 µg Cu/l, Caucasians) and to reference values reported for the UK population. Although no significant difference was found for Zn (P = 0.22; medians: 430 µg Zn/l for Bangladeshis, 377 µg Zn/l for Pakistani, 350 µg Zn/l for Caucasians, 355 µg Zn/l for Indians), a significantly (P < 0.001) higher Cu:Zn ratio was found for the Bangladeshis. Urinary Se of Bangladeshis (17.6 µg Se/l) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher compared to Indians (13.8 µg Se/l) and Pakistani (4.1 µg Se/l), although urinary selenium was generally within the reported reference values reported for the UK population. Exposure to copper via ethnic food consumption or altered copper metabolism may contribute to higher levels of Cu and Cu:Zn ratio in the Bangladeshi group. Previous studies have correlated high serum copper levels to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bangladeshis have higher than UK average mortality from HCC and a disproportionately higher incidence of CVD. The high urinary Cu levels and Cu:Zn ratio detected in UK Bangladeshis may therefore reflect early onset of disease process, and may ultimately result in these conditions for members of the Bangladeshi community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-364
Number of pages10
JournalBiomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Ethnic Groups
Copper
Urine
Selenium
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Reference Values
Cardiovascular Diseases
Chronic Hepatitis
Liver Cirrhosis
Population
Zinc
Volunteers
Mass Spectrometry
United Kingdom
Food
Mortality
Incidence
Serum

Keywords

  • Baseline
  • Copper
  • Ethnicity
  • ICP-MS
  • Selenium
  • Urine
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Elevated copper in urine of Bangladeshi ethnic group living in the United Kingdom. / Cascio, C.; Mulla, A.; Vanker, R.; Feldmann, J.; Meharg, A. A.; Jenkins, R. O.; Haris, Parvez I.

In: Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging, Vol. 1, No. 4, 01.01.2012, p. 355-364.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cascio, C. ; Mulla, A. ; Vanker, R. ; Feldmann, J. ; Meharg, A. A. ; Jenkins, R. O. ; Haris, Parvez I. / Elevated copper in urine of Bangladeshi ethnic group living in the United Kingdom. In: Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging. 2012 ; Vol. 1, No. 4. pp. 355-364.
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AU - Mulla, A.

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AU - Feldmann, J.

AU - Meharg, A. A.

AU - Jenkins, R. O.

AU - Haris, Parvez I.

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N2 - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to monitor urinary selenium, copper and zinc in a group of Bangladeshi (n = 54), Indian (n = 25), Pakistani (n = 21), and White Caucasian (n = 23) volunteers living in the UK. The most striking findings were far higher urinary copper levels (P < 0.001) in the Bangladeshi group (median: 30.2 µg Cu/l) compared to other ethnicities (15.6 µg Cu/l, Pakistani; 14.8 µg Cu/l, Indian; 10.5 µg Cu/l, Caucasians) and to reference values reported for the UK population. Although no significant difference was found for Zn (P = 0.22; medians: 430 µg Zn/l for Bangladeshis, 377 µg Zn/l for Pakistani, 350 µg Zn/l for Caucasians, 355 µg Zn/l for Indians), a significantly (P < 0.001) higher Cu:Zn ratio was found for the Bangladeshis. Urinary Se of Bangladeshis (17.6 µg Se/l) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher compared to Indians (13.8 µg Se/l) and Pakistani (4.1 µg Se/l), although urinary selenium was generally within the reported reference values reported for the UK population. Exposure to copper via ethnic food consumption or altered copper metabolism may contribute to higher levels of Cu and Cu:Zn ratio in the Bangladeshi group. Previous studies have correlated high serum copper levels to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bangladeshis have higher than UK average mortality from HCC and a disproportionately higher incidence of CVD. The high urinary Cu levels and Cu:Zn ratio detected in UK Bangladeshis may therefore reflect early onset of disease process, and may ultimately result in these conditions for members of the Bangladeshi community.

AB - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to monitor urinary selenium, copper and zinc in a group of Bangladeshi (n = 54), Indian (n = 25), Pakistani (n = 21), and White Caucasian (n = 23) volunteers living in the UK. The most striking findings were far higher urinary copper levels (P < 0.001) in the Bangladeshi group (median: 30.2 µg Cu/l) compared to other ethnicities (15.6 µg Cu/l, Pakistani; 14.8 µg Cu/l, Indian; 10.5 µg Cu/l, Caucasians) and to reference values reported for the UK population. Although no significant difference was found for Zn (P = 0.22; medians: 430 µg Zn/l for Bangladeshis, 377 µg Zn/l for Pakistani, 350 µg Zn/l for Caucasians, 355 µg Zn/l for Indians), a significantly (P < 0.001) higher Cu:Zn ratio was found for the Bangladeshis. Urinary Se of Bangladeshis (17.6 µg Se/l) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher compared to Indians (13.8 µg Se/l) and Pakistani (4.1 µg Se/l), although urinary selenium was generally within the reported reference values reported for the UK population. Exposure to copper via ethnic food consumption or altered copper metabolism may contribute to higher levels of Cu and Cu:Zn ratio in the Bangladeshi group. Previous studies have correlated high serum copper levels to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bangladeshis have higher than UK average mortality from HCC and a disproportionately higher incidence of CVD. The high urinary Cu levels and Cu:Zn ratio detected in UK Bangladeshis may therefore reflect early onset of disease process, and may ultimately result in these conditions for members of the Bangladeshi community.

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