Energy Saving Obligations and White Certificates: Ideas and Considerations for the Transport Sector

Paolo Bertoldi, Silvia Rezessy, Jillian Anable, Patrick Jochem, Vlasis Oikonomou

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A lot of policy interest and analysis has been focused on energy saving obligations
on energy distributors or suppliers (mainly electricity and gas) coupled with
trading of certified energy savings via tradable white certificates. While in the
European Union the Energy Services Directive (2006=32=EC) also applies to transport fuels and some of the existing energy saving obligations allow certification of savings from transport projects, as of the end of 2009 no EU Member State has energy saving obligations on transport fuel distributors. The article explores the application of energy saving obligations in road transport, discussing the imposition of energy saving obligations on transport fuel suppliers, the definition of eligible technologies and projects, and considering energy saving obligations as a stand-alone tool or integrated with existing electricity and gas obligations. The article intends to open further discussion and research on the topic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-374
Number of pages30
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011



  • energy efficiency
  • savings obligations
  • transport
  • white certificates

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