Enzymes regulating the accumulation of active oxygen species during the hypersensitive reaction of bean to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

A L ADAM, Charles Bestwick, B BARNA, J W MANSFIELD

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Abstract

Changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) which regulate the persistence of active oxygen species (AOS) were examined in leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) undergoing compatible and incompatible interactions to race 6 and race 3 strains, respectively, of the halo-blight bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Resistance of cv. Tendergreen to race 3 is determined by the R3 gene and was expressed by a hypersensitive reaction (HR) which was associated with a rapid increase in lipid peroxidation between 8 and 12 h after inoculation. Five main isoforms of SOD were resolved by native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Major changes were found in the activities of the cytosolic Cu,Zn-SOD3 and Cu,Zn-SOD5 isoforms, which increased by 6 h after inoculation with race 3, and the possibly peroxisomal Mn-SOD2 isoform, which decreased rapidly in tissue undergoing the HR. Three further minor isoforms of SOD showed a strong increase in activity during the HR. A low level of extracellular SOD activity was also resolved; two isoforms, one of which increased dramatically in activity during the HR, were detected within intercellular fluids recovered from inoculation sites. Fewer changes in SOD activities were found during the compatible interaction to race 6, and they did not occur until 16 h after inoculation. In tissue around infiltration sites, no decrease in the activity of Mn-SOD2 was observed but slight increases in some other isoforms were found. Four groups of POD isoforms were detected in bot h 3,3-diaminobenzidine/H2O2- and o-dianisidine/H2O2-stained PAGE gels. Significant changes in activity were again associated with development of the HR. In particular, by 2 h after inoculation, increases in POD3a, b and c isoforms were detected within total soluble extracts and also in POD3c within intercellular fluids (no other isoform was found in the apoplasm). By contrast, POD1 and POD2 activities generally declined following inoculation. The principal change in activity in tissues surrounding infiltration sites was an increase in POD3 isoforms following inoculation with race 3. Measurements of total activity showed a decrease in CAT activity as early as 2 h after inoculation, followed by a recovery after 8 h and a further decrease as infiltrated tissue collapsed during the IIR. A more-gradual decline in CAT activity was observed at sites undergoing the compatible interaction and also in tissue surrounding inoculation sites. The spatial and temporal changes detected in activities of CAT and isoforms of SOD and POD clearly demonstrate the complexity and potential subtlety of control of the production and persistence of AOS in bean following microbial challenge. The generation of AOS through HR-specific, early increases in extra-cellular POD and SOD isoforms is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-249
Number of pages10
JournalPlanta
Volume197
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1995

Keywords

  • catalase
  • hypersensitive reaction
  • peroxidase
  • paseolus
  • peudomonas
  • superoxide dismutase
  • armoracia-lapathifolia-gilib
  • zinc-superoxide-dismutase
  • hyphal wall components
  • cultured plant-cells
  • hydrogen-peroxide
  • oxidative burst
  • phytophtora-infestans
  • lipid-peroxidation
  • Vulgaris L
  • generation

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