An assessment of the toxicity of three chlorophenol compounds (2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP)), individually and in combinations, was made in deionised water, soil extracts and soils using the lux-marked microbial biosensors: Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 and Pseudomonas fluorescens 10586r pUCD607. These biosensors responded to the bioavailable fraction of pollutants enabling a rapid and ecologically relevant toxicity test. Toxicity interaction responses of pollutant mixtures were predicted after individual compounds were assessed. Synergistic interactions were observed in the response of P. fluorescens to all combinations of chlorophenols tested, while the toxicity response of E. coli varied with the matrices tested. Soil characteristics influenced the toxicity response when compared with aqueous solutions. These results highlight the significance of interactive factors and physicochemical parameters when evaluating toxicity. To develop an understanding of pollution derived hazard assessment in soils we need to integrate a wide spectrum of parameters.
- ENERGY-TRANSDUCING MEMBRANES