Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people

the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme

C R Gale, A Aihie Sayer, C Cooper, E M Dennison, J M Starr, L J Whalley, J E Gallacher, Y Ben-Shlomo, D Kuh, R Hardy, Leone C Craig, I J Deary, The HALCyon Study Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety.MethodWe used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Caerphilly Prospective Study, the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between factors from early and later life and risk of anxiety or depression, defined as scores of 8 or more on the subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. RESULTS: Greater neuroticism, poorer cognitive or physical function, greater disability and taking more medications were associated in cross-sectional analyses with an increased overall likelihood of anxiety or depression. Associations between lower social class, either in childhood or currently, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes and increased risk of anxiety or depression were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding or mediating variables. There was no association between birth weight and anxiety or depression in later life. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression in later life are both strongly linked to personality, cognitive and physical function, disability and state of health, measured concurrently. Possible mechanisms that might underlie these associations are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2057-2073
Number of pages17
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume41
Issue number10
Early online date24 Feb 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

Fingerprint

Anxiety
Depression
Parturition
Birth Weight
Social Class
Cognition
Personality
Meta-Analysis
Heart Diseases
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Stroke
Prospective Studies
Health
Research

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • cohort studies
  • depression
  • elderly
  • life course

Cite this

Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people : the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme. / Gale, C R; Sayer, A Aihie; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M; Starr, J M; Whalley, L J; Gallacher, J E; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Kuh, D; Hardy, R; Craig, Leone C; Deary, I J; The HALCyon Study Team.

In: Psychological Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 10, 10.2011, p. 2057-2073.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gale, CR, Sayer, AA, Cooper, C, Dennison, EM, Starr, JM, Whalley, LJ, Gallacher, JE, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Kuh, D, Hardy, R, Craig, LC, Deary, IJ & The HALCyon Study Team 2011, 'Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme', Psychological Medicine, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2057-2073. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711000195
Gale, C R ; Sayer, A Aihie ; Cooper, C ; Dennison, E M ; Starr, J M ; Whalley, L J ; Gallacher, J E ; Ben-Shlomo, Y ; Kuh, D ; Hardy, R ; Craig, Leone C ; Deary, I J ; The HALCyon Study Team. / Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people : the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme. In: Psychological Medicine. 2011 ; Vol. 41, No. 10. pp. 2057-2073.
@article{5239a43033394bd3a8c8da0b477711b9,
title = "Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety.MethodWe used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Caerphilly Prospective Study, the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between factors from early and later life and risk of anxiety or depression, defined as scores of 8 or more on the subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. RESULTS: Greater neuroticism, poorer cognitive or physical function, greater disability and taking more medications were associated in cross-sectional analyses with an increased overall likelihood of anxiety or depression. Associations between lower social class, either in childhood or currently, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes and increased risk of anxiety or depression were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding or mediating variables. There was no association between birth weight and anxiety or depression in later life. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression in later life are both strongly linked to personality, cognitive and physical function, disability and state of health, measured concurrently. Possible mechanisms that might underlie these associations are discussed.",
keywords = "anxiety , cohort studies, depression , elderly, life course",
author = "Gale, {C R} and Sayer, {A Aihie} and C Cooper and Dennison, {E M} and Starr, {J M} and Whalley, {L J} and Gallacher, {J E} and Y Ben-Shlomo and D Kuh and R Hardy and Craig, {Leone C} and Deary, {I J} and {The HALCyon Study Team}",
year = "2011",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291711000195",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "2057--2073",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people

T2 - the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme

AU - Gale, C R

AU - Sayer, A Aihie

AU - Cooper, C

AU - Dennison, E M

AU - Starr, J M

AU - Whalley, L J

AU - Gallacher, J E

AU - Ben-Shlomo, Y

AU - Kuh, D

AU - Hardy, R

AU - Craig, Leone C

AU - Deary, I J

AU - The HALCyon Study Team

PY - 2011/10

Y1 - 2011/10

N2 - BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety.MethodWe used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Caerphilly Prospective Study, the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between factors from early and later life and risk of anxiety or depression, defined as scores of 8 or more on the subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. RESULTS: Greater neuroticism, poorer cognitive or physical function, greater disability and taking more medications were associated in cross-sectional analyses with an increased overall likelihood of anxiety or depression. Associations between lower social class, either in childhood or currently, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes and increased risk of anxiety or depression were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding or mediating variables. There was no association between birth weight and anxiety or depression in later life. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression in later life are both strongly linked to personality, cognitive and physical function, disability and state of health, measured concurrently. Possible mechanisms that might underlie these associations are discussed.

AB - BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety.MethodWe used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Caerphilly Prospective Study, the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between factors from early and later life and risk of anxiety or depression, defined as scores of 8 or more on the subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. RESULTS: Greater neuroticism, poorer cognitive or physical function, greater disability and taking more medications were associated in cross-sectional analyses with an increased overall likelihood of anxiety or depression. Associations between lower social class, either in childhood or currently, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes and increased risk of anxiety or depression were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding or mediating variables. There was no association between birth weight and anxiety or depression in later life. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression in later life are both strongly linked to personality, cognitive and physical function, disability and state of health, measured concurrently. Possible mechanisms that might underlie these associations are discussed.

KW - anxiety

KW - cohort studies

KW - depression

KW - elderly

KW - life course

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291711000195

DO - 10.1017/S0033291711000195

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 2057

EP - 2073

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 0033-2917

IS - 10

ER -