Guidance for the management of breast cancer treatment-induced bone loss: A consensus position statement from a UK Expert Group

David M. Reid, Julie Doughty, Richard Eastell, Steven D. Heys, Anthony Howell, Eugene V. McCloskey, Trevor Powles, Peter Selby, Robert E. Coleman

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Abstract

In postmenopausal women, the use of aromatase inhibitors increases bone turnover and induces bone loss at sites rich in trabecular bone at an average rate of 1-3% per year leading to an increase in fracture incidence compared to that seen during tamoxifen use. The bone Loss is much more marked in young women with treatment-induced ovarian suppression followed by aromatase inhibitor therapy (average 7-8% per annum). Pre-treatment with tamoxifen for 2-5 years may reduce the clinical significance of the adverse bone effects associated with aromatase inhibitors, particularly if this leads to a shortening in the duration of exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. However, skeletal status should stilt be assessed at the commencement of aromatase inhibitor therapy. The rate of bone toss in women who experience a premature menopause before the age of 45 or are receiving ovarian suppression therapy is accelerated by the concomitant use of aromatase inhibitors. These patients are considered to be at high risk of clinically important bone toss and should have a baseline dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of bone mineral density (BMD).

Randomised clinical trials in postmenopausal women indicate that bisphosphonates prevent the bone loss and accelerated bone turnover associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy and are a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in this setting. Treatment initiation recommendations are based on a combination of risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and BMD levels. Bisphosphonates, along with a healthy lifestyle and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D are the treatments of choice to prevent bone loss. Due to the rate of bone toss associated with breast cancer treatments, and uncertainties about the interaction between aromatase inhibitor use and BMD for fracture risk, the threshold for intervention has been set at a higher level than that generally recommended for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Management recommendations have been summarised in two algorithms, one for women experiencing a premature menopause and the other for postmenopausal women requiring adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S3-S18
Number of pages16
JournalCancer Treatment Reviews
Volume34
Issue numberSuppl. 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Keywords

  • hormone replacement therapy
  • induced ovarian failure
  • aromatase inhibitor letrozole
  • adjuvant endocrine therapy
  • late postmenopausal women
  • mineral density
  • fracture risk
  • osteoporotic fractures
  • premenopausal women
  • vertebral fractures

Cite this

Reid, D. M., Doughty, J., Eastell, R., Heys, S. D., Howell, A., McCloskey, E. V., Powles, T., Selby, P., & Coleman, R. E. (2008). Guidance for the management of breast cancer treatment-induced bone loss: A consensus position statement from a UK Expert Group. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 34(Suppl. 1), S3-S18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2008.03.007