This guidance updates and replaces the previous guideline on the investigation and management of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) published in 2000 (Greaves et al, 2000), though where there have not been changes we refer back to them when appropriate. The guidance is updated with reference to relevant publications since 2000. Publications known to the writing group were supplemented with additional papers identified by searching PubMed for publications in the last 11 years using the key words: lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antiphospholipid, β2–glycoprotein I, antiprothrombin and limits (clinical trial, randomized control trial, meta-analysis, humans, core clinical journals, English language). The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of approximately 50 UK haematologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The ‘GRADE’ system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found at http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the diagnosis and management of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome though individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach.
- antiphospholipid syndrome
- antiphospholipid antibodies