How to recognise a kick

A cognitive task analysis of drillers’ situation awareness during well operations

R. Roberts, R. Flin, J. Cleland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purpose: The ability to monitor and detect anomalous changes in an oil well is a fundamental aspect of an offshore driller’s job, so as to maintain well control, the safety of the surrounding rig and minimize risk. Drillers are required to have a high level of situation awareness in order to recognize and interpret indicators that suggest that hazardous hydrocarbons may have entered the well bore (referred to as kick detection), allowing them to take the best actions to deal with the situation. The aim was to use cognitive task analysis methods to identify the expert SA skills required for the complex task of kick detection. Method: An Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) of the SA components required for kick detection was conducted. 1. A technical task description was produced, using material extracted from well control manuals and a five day training course. 2. The SA components required for the kick detection task using the preliminary Drillers’ SA model. 3. The ACTA data were validated by three drilling experts. Results: The specific cognitive skills associated with maintaining SA that were required for
accurate kick detection were: attending to and recognizing changes in the drilling parameters, understanding their significance as kick indicators in the context of a mental picture of the well state, and anticipating what could result in a kick, necessitating flow checking and/or shutting in actions.
Limitations: ACTA methods are prone to research bias however actions were taken to minimize this. Practical Implications: Training and work design recommendations based on the ACTA are outlined for supporting driller SA for effective well control and consequently to improve process safety. The study also illustrates how ACTA methods can be used to examine and support cognition in the workplace.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-513
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries
Volume43
Early online date9 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016

Fingerprint

Oil and Gas Fields
Safety
drilling
Drilling
Aptitude
Manual control
Workplace
Cognition
Oil wells
oil fields
working conditions
education programs
cognition
Research
methodology
Task analysis
monitoring
Oil
Work place
Work design

Keywords

  • Kick Detection
  • Situation Awareness
  • Cognitive Task Analysis
  • Drilling
  • Safety

Cite this

@article{814df1f371044ab0afdf1a2118bc76d4,
title = "How to recognise a kick: A cognitive task analysis of drillers’ situation awareness during well operations",
abstract = "Purpose: The ability to monitor and detect anomalous changes in an oil well is a fundamental aspect of an offshore driller’s job, so as to maintain well control, the safety of the surrounding rig and minimize risk. Drillers are required to have a high level of situation awareness in order to recognize and interpret indicators that suggest that hazardous hydrocarbons may have entered the well bore (referred to as kick detection), allowing them to take the best actions to deal with the situation. The aim was to use cognitive task analysis methods to identify the expert SA skills required for the complex task of kick detection. Method: An Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) of the SA components required for kick detection was conducted. 1. A technical task description was produced, using material extracted from well control manuals and a five day training course. 2. The SA components required for the kick detection task using the preliminary Drillers’ SA model. 3. The ACTA data were validated by three drilling experts. Results: The specific cognitive skills associated with maintaining SA that were required foraccurate kick detection were: attending to and recognizing changes in the drilling parameters, understanding their significance as kick indicators in the context of a mental picture of the well state, and anticipating what could result in a kick, necessitating flow checking and/or shutting in actions.Limitations: ACTA methods are prone to research bias however actions were taken to minimize this. Practical Implications: Training and work design recommendations based on the ACTA are outlined for supporting driller SA for effective well control and consequently to improve process safety. The study also illustrates how ACTA methods can be used to examine and support cognition in the workplace.",
keywords = "Kick Detection, Situation Awareness, Cognitive Task Analysis, Drilling, Safety",
author = "R. Roberts and R. Flin and J. Cleland",
note = "Acknowledgements This article is based on a doctoral research project of the first author which was sponsored by an international drilling rig operator. The views presented are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the position or policy of the sponsor. The authors wish to thank the industrial supervisor and the drilling experts for their contribution and patience, as well as Aberdeen Drilling School for allowing the first author to attend one of their well control courses.",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.jlp.2016.07.003",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "503--513",
journal = "Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries",
issn = "0950-4230",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - How to recognise a kick

T2 - A cognitive task analysis of drillers’ situation awareness during well operations

AU - Roberts, R.

AU - Flin, R.

AU - Cleland, J.

N1 - Acknowledgements This article is based on a doctoral research project of the first author which was sponsored by an international drilling rig operator. The views presented are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the position or policy of the sponsor. The authors wish to thank the industrial supervisor and the drilling experts for their contribution and patience, as well as Aberdeen Drilling School for allowing the first author to attend one of their well control courses.

PY - 2016/9

Y1 - 2016/9

N2 - Purpose: The ability to monitor and detect anomalous changes in an oil well is a fundamental aspect of an offshore driller’s job, so as to maintain well control, the safety of the surrounding rig and minimize risk. Drillers are required to have a high level of situation awareness in order to recognize and interpret indicators that suggest that hazardous hydrocarbons may have entered the well bore (referred to as kick detection), allowing them to take the best actions to deal with the situation. The aim was to use cognitive task analysis methods to identify the expert SA skills required for the complex task of kick detection. Method: An Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) of the SA components required for kick detection was conducted. 1. A technical task description was produced, using material extracted from well control manuals and a five day training course. 2. The SA components required for the kick detection task using the preliminary Drillers’ SA model. 3. The ACTA data were validated by three drilling experts. Results: The specific cognitive skills associated with maintaining SA that were required foraccurate kick detection were: attending to and recognizing changes in the drilling parameters, understanding their significance as kick indicators in the context of a mental picture of the well state, and anticipating what could result in a kick, necessitating flow checking and/or shutting in actions.Limitations: ACTA methods are prone to research bias however actions were taken to minimize this. Practical Implications: Training and work design recommendations based on the ACTA are outlined for supporting driller SA for effective well control and consequently to improve process safety. The study also illustrates how ACTA methods can be used to examine and support cognition in the workplace.

AB - Purpose: The ability to monitor and detect anomalous changes in an oil well is a fundamental aspect of an offshore driller’s job, so as to maintain well control, the safety of the surrounding rig and minimize risk. Drillers are required to have a high level of situation awareness in order to recognize and interpret indicators that suggest that hazardous hydrocarbons may have entered the well bore (referred to as kick detection), allowing them to take the best actions to deal with the situation. The aim was to use cognitive task analysis methods to identify the expert SA skills required for the complex task of kick detection. Method: An Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) of the SA components required for kick detection was conducted. 1. A technical task description was produced, using material extracted from well control manuals and a five day training course. 2. The SA components required for the kick detection task using the preliminary Drillers’ SA model. 3. The ACTA data were validated by three drilling experts. Results: The specific cognitive skills associated with maintaining SA that were required foraccurate kick detection were: attending to and recognizing changes in the drilling parameters, understanding their significance as kick indicators in the context of a mental picture of the well state, and anticipating what could result in a kick, necessitating flow checking and/or shutting in actions.Limitations: ACTA methods are prone to research bias however actions were taken to minimize this. Practical Implications: Training and work design recommendations based on the ACTA are outlined for supporting driller SA for effective well control and consequently to improve process safety. The study also illustrates how ACTA methods can be used to examine and support cognition in the workplace.

KW - Kick Detection

KW - Situation Awareness

KW - Cognitive Task Analysis

KW - Drilling

KW - Safety

U2 - 10.1016/j.jlp.2016.07.003

DO - 10.1016/j.jlp.2016.07.003

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 503

EP - 513

JO - Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

JF - Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

SN - 0950-4230

ER -