Exophiala angulospora infection in hatchery reared lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) broodstock

Marcia Saraiva, Max J Beckmann, Sara Pflaum, Marianne Pearson , Daniel Carcajona, James W Treasurer, Pieter Van West* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Samples from moribund lumpfish were collected in a marine hatchery in Scotland in 2015. Black nodules were noted on the skin, and gills and fungal hyphae were extensively distributed in musculature and internal organs. Multifocal chronic inflammatory lesions displaced structures in all affected organs. Mortalities commenced on completion of spawning in May and were evenly distributed over the second year in the temperature range 11–15°C. The main systemic infection causing agent was initially identified based on morphological characteristics as an Exophiala species. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ITS regions of the isolates were subsequently sequenced confirming the isolates belonged to Exophiala genus. All isolates fell in a single phylogenetic cluster, which is represented by Exophiala angulospora. Fish were treated with either formalin or Bronopol or a combination of both, but there was no effect on the pattern or numbers of mortalities. Isolates were also tested against three different concentrations of Latrunculin A, Amphotericin B and Itraconazole with no success. It is of utmost importance to increase the knowledge on pathogen–host interactions to successfully develop sustainable control methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-343
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Fish Diseases
Issue number3
Early online date11 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • cleaner fish
  • Cyclopterus lumpus
  • Exophiala angulospora
  • fungus
  • lumpfish
  • Fungus
  • Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • Scotland
  • Phylogeny
  • Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy
  • Exophiala/classification
  • Fish Diseases/drug therapy
  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
  • Perciformes
  • Aquaculture


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