BACKGROUND: Social control and support have effects on smoking cessation, but are mostly examined separately.
PURPOSE: Interacting effects of social control and support are investigated, hypothesizing synergistic effects.
METHODS: In 99 smokers, received social control and emotional support (both smoking specific) were assessed 2 weeks before a quit date (T1); objectively verified abstinence and self-reported numbers of cigarettes smoked daily were assessed 6 weeks after baseline (T2).
RESULTS: For both outcomes, associations with control (T1) were moderated by support (T1), but beneficial synergistic effects (high control/high support) emerged for few participants only. Effects were mainly driven by constellations of low control/high support associated with more cigarettes smoked daily (T2) and low control/low support linked to higher likelihood of abstinence (T2).
CONCLUSIONS: Different constellations of levels of control and support may be beneficial for quitting smoking. Whereas synergies of high domain-specific control and support may be beneficial, they only rarely occur.
- Middle Aged
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Control
- Social Support
- Tobacco Use Disorder
- Young Adult
- Health-behavior change
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't