Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers II. Hydrodynamic characterization and flux comparisons of 14 different designs

A Tengberg*, POJ Hall, U Andersson, B Linden, O Styrenius, G Boland, F de Bovee, B Carlsson, S Ceradini, A Devol, G Duineveld, JU Friemann, RN Glud, A Khripounoff, J Leather, P Linke, L Lund-Hansen, G Rowe, P Santschi, P de Wilde & 1 others U Witte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We have compared 14 different sediment incubation chambers, most of them were used on bottom landers. Measurements of mixing time, pressure gradients at the bottom and Diffusive Boundary Layer thickness (DBL) were used to describe the hydrodynamic properties of the chambers and sediment-water solute fluxes of silicate (34 replicates) and oxygen (23 replicates) during three subsequently repeated incubation experiments on a homogenized, macrofauna-free sediment. The silicate fluxes ranged from 0.24 to 1.01 mmol m(-2) day(-1) and the oxygen fluxes from 9.3 to 22.6 mmol m(-2) day(-1). There was no statistically significant correlation between measured fluxes and the chamber design or between measured fluxes and hydrodynamic settings suggesting that type of chamber was not important in these flux measurements. For verification of sediment homogeneity, 61 samples of meiofauna were taken and identified to major taxa. In addition. 13 sediment cores were collected. sectioned into 5-10-mm slices and separated into pore water and solid phase. The pore water profiles of disolved silicale were used to calculate diffusive fluxes of silicate. These fluxes ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 mmol m(-2) day(-1). All of the collected sediment parameters indicated that the sediment homogenization process had been satisfactorily accomplished, hydrodynamic variations inside and between chambers are a reflection of the chamber design and the stirring device, In general. pump stirrers with diffusers give a more even distribution of bottom currents and DBL thicknesses than paddle wheel-type stirrers, Most chambers display no or low static differential pressures when the water is mixed at rates of normal Use, Consequently. there is a low risk of creating stirrer induced pressure effects on the measured fluxes. Centrally placed stirrers are preferable to off-center placed stirrers which are more difficult to map and do not seem to give any hydrodynamic advantages, A vertically rotating stirrer gives about five times lower static differential pressures at the same stirring, speed as the same stirrer mounted horizontally If the aim is to simulate or mimic resuspension at high flow velocities, it cannot be satisfactorily done in a chamber using it horizontal (standing) rotating impeller (as is the case for most chambers in use) due to the creation of unnatural conditions. i,e. large static differential pressures and pre-mature resuspension at certain locations in the chamber. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-173
Number of pages27
JournalMarine chemistry
Volume94
Issue number1-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2005

Keywords

  • benthic chambers
  • calibration
  • hydrodynamic properties
  • comparative flux incubations
  • SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE
  • DIFFUSIVE BOUNDARY-LAYERS
  • OXYGEN-UPTAKE
  • DEEP-SEA
  • SOLUTE TRANSPORT
  • PORE-WATER
  • IN-SITU
  • EXCHANGE
  • FLOOR
  • INSITU

Cite this

Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers II. Hydrodynamic characterization and flux comparisons of 14 different designs. / Tengberg, A; Hall, POJ; Andersson, U; Linden, B; Styrenius, O; Boland, G; de Bovee, F; Carlsson, B; Ceradini, S; Devol, A; Duineveld, G; Friemann, JU; Glud, RN; Khripounoff, A; Leather, J; Linke, P; Lund-Hansen, L; Rowe, G; Santschi, P; de Wilde, P; Witte, U.

In: Marine chemistry, Vol. 94, No. 1-4, 01.03.2005, p. 147-173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tengberg, A, Hall, POJ, Andersson, U, Linden, B, Styrenius, O, Boland, G, de Bovee, F, Carlsson, B, Ceradini, S, Devol, A, Duineveld, G, Friemann, JU, Glud, RN, Khripounoff, A, Leather, J, Linke, P, Lund-Hansen, L, Rowe, G, Santschi, P, de Wilde, P & Witte, U 2005, 'Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers II. Hydrodynamic characterization and flux comparisons of 14 different designs', Marine chemistry, vol. 94, no. 1-4, pp. 147-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2004.07.014
Tengberg, A ; Hall, POJ ; Andersson, U ; Linden, B ; Styrenius, O ; Boland, G ; de Bovee, F ; Carlsson, B ; Ceradini, S ; Devol, A ; Duineveld, G ; Friemann, JU ; Glud, RN ; Khripounoff, A ; Leather, J ; Linke, P ; Lund-Hansen, L ; Rowe, G ; Santschi, P ; de Wilde, P ; Witte, U. / Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers II. Hydrodynamic characterization and flux comparisons of 14 different designs. In: Marine chemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 94, No. 1-4. pp. 147-173.
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T1 - Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers II. Hydrodynamic characterization and flux comparisons of 14 different designs

AU - Tengberg, A

AU - Hall, POJ

AU - Andersson, U

AU - Linden, B

AU - Styrenius, O

AU - Boland, G

AU - de Bovee, F

AU - Carlsson, B

AU - Ceradini, S

AU - Devol, A

AU - Duineveld, G

AU - Friemann, JU

AU - Glud, RN

AU - Khripounoff, A

AU - Leather, J

AU - Linke, P

AU - Lund-Hansen, L

AU - Rowe, G

AU - Santschi, P

AU - de Wilde, P

AU - Witte, U

PY - 2005/3/1

Y1 - 2005/3/1

N2 - We have compared 14 different sediment incubation chambers, most of them were used on bottom landers. Measurements of mixing time, pressure gradients at the bottom and Diffusive Boundary Layer thickness (DBL) were used to describe the hydrodynamic properties of the chambers and sediment-water solute fluxes of silicate (34 replicates) and oxygen (23 replicates) during three subsequently repeated incubation experiments on a homogenized, macrofauna-free sediment. The silicate fluxes ranged from 0.24 to 1.01 mmol m(-2) day(-1) and the oxygen fluxes from 9.3 to 22.6 mmol m(-2) day(-1). There was no statistically significant correlation between measured fluxes and the chamber design or between measured fluxes and hydrodynamic settings suggesting that type of chamber was not important in these flux measurements. For verification of sediment homogeneity, 61 samples of meiofauna were taken and identified to major taxa. In addition. 13 sediment cores were collected. sectioned into 5-10-mm slices and separated into pore water and solid phase. The pore water profiles of disolved silicale were used to calculate diffusive fluxes of silicate. These fluxes ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 mmol m(-2) day(-1). All of the collected sediment parameters indicated that the sediment homogenization process had been satisfactorily accomplished, hydrodynamic variations inside and between chambers are a reflection of the chamber design and the stirring device, In general. pump stirrers with diffusers give a more even distribution of bottom currents and DBL thicknesses than paddle wheel-type stirrers, Most chambers display no or low static differential pressures when the water is mixed at rates of normal Use, Consequently. there is a low risk of creating stirrer induced pressure effects on the measured fluxes. Centrally placed stirrers are preferable to off-center placed stirrers which are more difficult to map and do not seem to give any hydrodynamic advantages, A vertically rotating stirrer gives about five times lower static differential pressures at the same stirring, speed as the same stirrer mounted horizontally If the aim is to simulate or mimic resuspension at high flow velocities, it cannot be satisfactorily done in a chamber using it horizontal (standing) rotating impeller (as is the case for most chambers in use) due to the creation of unnatural conditions. i,e. large static differential pressures and pre-mature resuspension at certain locations in the chamber. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - We have compared 14 different sediment incubation chambers, most of them were used on bottom landers. Measurements of mixing time, pressure gradients at the bottom and Diffusive Boundary Layer thickness (DBL) were used to describe the hydrodynamic properties of the chambers and sediment-water solute fluxes of silicate (34 replicates) and oxygen (23 replicates) during three subsequently repeated incubation experiments on a homogenized, macrofauna-free sediment. The silicate fluxes ranged from 0.24 to 1.01 mmol m(-2) day(-1) and the oxygen fluxes from 9.3 to 22.6 mmol m(-2) day(-1). There was no statistically significant correlation between measured fluxes and the chamber design or between measured fluxes and hydrodynamic settings suggesting that type of chamber was not important in these flux measurements. For verification of sediment homogeneity, 61 samples of meiofauna were taken and identified to major taxa. In addition. 13 sediment cores were collected. sectioned into 5-10-mm slices and separated into pore water and solid phase. The pore water profiles of disolved silicale were used to calculate diffusive fluxes of silicate. These fluxes ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 mmol m(-2) day(-1). All of the collected sediment parameters indicated that the sediment homogenization process had been satisfactorily accomplished, hydrodynamic variations inside and between chambers are a reflection of the chamber design and the stirring device, In general. pump stirrers with diffusers give a more even distribution of bottom currents and DBL thicknesses than paddle wheel-type stirrers, Most chambers display no or low static differential pressures when the water is mixed at rates of normal Use, Consequently. there is a low risk of creating stirrer induced pressure effects on the measured fluxes. Centrally placed stirrers are preferable to off-center placed stirrers which are more difficult to map and do not seem to give any hydrodynamic advantages, A vertically rotating stirrer gives about five times lower static differential pressures at the same stirring, speed as the same stirrer mounted horizontally If the aim is to simulate or mimic resuspension at high flow velocities, it cannot be satisfactorily done in a chamber using it horizontal (standing) rotating impeller (as is the case for most chambers in use) due to the creation of unnatural conditions. i,e. large static differential pressures and pre-mature resuspension at certain locations in the chamber. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - benthic chambers

KW - calibration

KW - hydrodynamic properties

KW - comparative flux incubations

KW - SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

KW - DIFFUSIVE BOUNDARY-LAYERS

KW - OXYGEN-UPTAKE

KW - DEEP-SEA

KW - SOLUTE TRANSPORT

KW - PORE-WATER

KW - IN-SITU

KW - EXCHANGE

KW - FLOOR

KW - INSITU

U2 - 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.07.014

DO - 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.07.014

M3 - Article

VL - 94

SP - 147

EP - 173

JO - Marine chemistry

JF - Marine chemistry

SN - 0304-4203

IS - 1-4

ER -