We used speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to make a comparison between the effects of ageing and of heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HfnEF) on left ventricular (LV) torsion and strain patterns.
Forty patients with HfnEF, 27 young controls and 26 older controls, were prospectively recruited. All subjects underwent clinical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, pulmonary function test, echocardiogram, and metabolic exercise test. LV torsion increases with advancing age (older controls vs. young controls, 2.2 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.8 degrees/cm; P = 0.03). Circumferential strain was enhanced in patients with HfnEF (-24.7 +/- 4.7 vs. -20.0 +/- 4.9%; P = 0.003). Rotational deformation delay (time difference between peak basal rotation and peak apical rotation), global circumferential strain, E-velocity deceleration time, and LV end-diastolic volume index were independent predictors of LV torsion. LV torsion and body mass index were independent predictors of LV untwist rate.
Ageing is associated with increased LV torsion secondary to reduced rotational deformation delay and increased peak basal rotation. LV torsion and strain patterns in patients with HfnEF are similar to age-related changes apart from circumferential strain, which is enhanced in patients with HfnEF.
- heart failure with normal ejection fraction
- speckle tracking echocardiography
- diastolic dysfunction