It is being increasingly recognized that orthopedic implants are associated with adverse tissue responses, mediated by degradation products. Recent interest has been focused on the production of metal ions from hip arthroplasty. Few studies have reviewed fracture fixation devices and their metal ion production.
Patton, M. S., Lyon, T. D. B., & Ashcroft, G. P. (2008). Levels of systemic metal ions in patients with intramedullary nails. Acta Orthopaedica, 79(6), 820-825. https://doi.org/10.1080/17453670810016911