Objective: To examine dietary change that has occurred over 5 to 6 years.
Subjects: A cohort of Scottish women (n = 898) With a mean age of 47.5 years (range 45-54 years) at baseline.
Design: Dietary intake was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and analysed using the UK Composition of Foods database.
Results: Since the first dietary assessment, mean daily energy intake had decreased from 8.2 +/- 2.3 to 7.9 +/- 2.2 MJ. The degree of low energy reporting (defined as ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate < 1.1) had increased from 18.7% at baseline to 25.6% at follow-up. Low energy reporters were significantly heavier than 'normal' energy reporters (mean weight at follow-Lip, 68.9 +/- 12.6 vs. 66.8 +/- 11.3kg) and could be deliberately restricting intake rather than underreporting. Overall there were decreases in intakes of red meat, processed meat and cheese, but increases in Poultry and non-oily fish consumption. Consumption of bread, biscuits and cakes had gone down and there was an increase in cereal and rice/pasta consumption. Intake of potatoes had decreased whereas fruit intake had increased. There were small but statistically significant differences in intakes for most nutrients (< 8% change). Nutrient intakes at both visits were similar across menopausal status and usage groups of hormone replacement therapy. Modifications to the Computer version of the McCance and Widdowson nutrient database, which differed from the published version, were noted. These changes altered the original baseline values for our study.
Conclusions: The menopause per se is not a period of marked change in nutrient intake. Caution is advised when using computer databases of food compositions for longitudinal studies.
- longitudinal dietary changes
- menopause women
- food-frequency questionnaire
- FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES
- HEART-DISEASE RISK
- REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS
- RECRUITMENT METHODS
- SCREENING PROGRAMS
- ODDS RATIOS