Longitudinal changes in weight in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: effects of dietary energy intake, energy expenditure, dietary calcium intake and hormone replacement therapy

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.

DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.

SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36% were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45% had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.

MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.

RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4% (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6% P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.

CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-676
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Keywords

  • weight gain
  • menopause
  • physical activity level
  • dietary energy intake
  • HRT
  • calcium
  • FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE
  • CORONARY HEART-DISEASE
  • LABELED WATER MEASUREMENTS
  • BONE-MINERAL DENSITY
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS
  • PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
  • RECRUITMENT METHODS
  • AFFLUENT SOCIETIES
  • SCREENING PROGRAMS

Cite this

@article{38711a008dd7441d906291b4e471faa6,
title = "Longitudinal changes in weight in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: effects of dietary energy intake, energy expenditure, dietary calcium intake and hormone replacement therapy",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2{\%}) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36{\%} were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45{\%} had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4{\%} (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6{\%} P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.",
keywords = "weight gain, menopause, physical activity level, dietary energy intake, HRT, calcium, FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE, CORONARY HEART-DISEASE, LABELED WATER MEASUREMENTS, BONE-MINERAL DENSITY, RISK-FACTORS, REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS, PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, RECRUITMENT METHODS, AFFLUENT SOCIETIES, SCREENING PROGRAMS",
author = "MacDonald, {Helen Margaret} and New, {S. A.} and Reid, {David M} and Campbell, {Marion Kay}",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1038/sj.ijo.0802283",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "669--676",
journal = "International Journal of Obesity",
issn = "0307-0565",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Longitudinal changes in weight in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: effects of dietary energy intake, energy expenditure, dietary calcium intake and hormone replacement therapy

AU - MacDonald, Helen Margaret

AU - New, S. A.

AU - Reid, David M

AU - Campbell, Marion Kay

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36% were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45% had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4% (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6% P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36% were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45% had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4% (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6% P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.

KW - weight gain

KW - menopause

KW - physical activity level

KW - dietary energy intake

KW - HRT

KW - calcium

KW - FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE

KW - CORONARY HEART-DISEASE

KW - LABELED WATER MEASUREMENTS

KW - BONE-MINERAL DENSITY

KW - RISK-FACTORS

KW - REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS

KW - PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

KW - RECRUITMENT METHODS

KW - AFFLUENT SOCIETIES

KW - SCREENING PROGRAMS

U2 - 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802283

DO - 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802283

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 669

EP - 676

JO - International Journal of Obesity

JF - International Journal of Obesity

SN - 0307-0565

IS - 6

ER -