OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.
DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.
SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36% were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45% had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.
MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.
RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4% (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6% P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.
CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.
- weight gain
- physical activity level
- dietary energy intake
- FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE
- CORONARY HEART-DISEASE
- LABELED WATER MEASUREMENTS
- BONE-MINERAL DENSITY
- REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS
- PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
- RECRUITMENT METHODS
- AFFLUENT SOCIETIES
- SCREENING PROGRAMS