Longitudinal changes in weight in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: effects of dietary energy intake, energy expenditure, dietary calcium intake and hormone replacement therapy

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether energy intake or energy expenditure affects 5-7 y weight gain in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, and whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or dietary calcium (Ca) intake are contributory factors.

DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study of healthy women around the menopause.

SUBJECTS: A total of 1064 initially premenopausal women, selected from a random population of 5119 women aged 45-54 y at baseline. In all, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3+/-0.6y later for repeat measurements. Of these, 36% were postmenopausal (no HRT) and 45% had taken HRT, and 898 women completed the questionnaires.

MEASUREMENTS: Weight, height, estimation of energy intake by food frequency questionnaire and physical activity level (PAL) by questionnaire.

RESULTS: Change in PAL influenced weight change explaining 4.4% (P = 0.001) of the variation. Alterations in dietary energy intake also had a small but significant effect (0.6% P = 0.013). Dietary Ca intake had no effect on weight or weight change.

CONCLUSION: Mean weight had increased and was influenced more by reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake. HRT and dietary Ca intake did not influence weight gain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-676
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Keywords

  • weight gain
  • menopause
  • physical activity level
  • dietary energy intake
  • HRT
  • calcium
  • FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE
  • CORONARY HEART-DISEASE
  • LABELED WATER MEASUREMENTS
  • BONE-MINERAL DENSITY
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • REGIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS
  • PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
  • RECRUITMENT METHODS
  • AFFLUENT SOCIETIES
  • SCREENING PROGRAMS

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