Metal electrode surfaces can roughen despite the constraint of a stiff electrolyte

Robert M. McMeeking (Corresponding Author), Markus Ganser, Markus Klinsmann, Felix E. Hildebrand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Roughening of metal electrodes in batteries is detrimental as it can lead to metal dendrites. Such dendrites can cause short circuits when they grow from the metal electrode to the other one, as can happen during battery operation when metal is plated onto the surface of an electrode. It has been suggested that solid electrolytes of sufficient elastic stiffness can suppress electrode surface roughening and dendriting, although experimental evidence is now emerging that this possibility is not valid. To investigate whether metal electrode surfaces will roughen during battery charging we carry out a linear perturbation analysis. Our calculations explore whether an electrode surface with one-dimensional sinusoidal roughness will experience growth of its amplitude. We assess a linear elastic electrolyte that is a single ion conductor bonded to a metal electrode being plated by a cathodic ionic current. We find that long wavelength perturbations will always increase in roughness. High current densities during battery charging are found to permit growth of the amplitude of small wavelength roughness. The stiffness of the solid electrolyte is found to play a role in limiting the growth of roughness, but its effect can always be overcome at high current densities and for long wavelength protrusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A984-A995
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume166
Issue number6
Early online date26 Mar 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

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Electrolytes
Metals
Electrodes
Surface roughness
Charging (batteries)
Dendrites (metallography)
Solid electrolytes
Wavelength
Current density
Stiffness
Short circuit currents
Ions

Keywords

  • LITHIUM-METAL
  • DENDRITE GROWTH
  • POLYMER ELECTROLYTES
  • ELASTIC PROPERTIES
  • ION-CONDUCTIVITY
  • IN-SITU
  • STABILITY
  • MECHANISMS
  • DIFFUSION
  • TRANSPORT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Cite this

Metal electrode surfaces can roughen despite the constraint of a stiff electrolyte. / McMeeking, Robert M. (Corresponding Author); Ganser, Markus; Klinsmann, Markus; Hildebrand, Felix E.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 166, No. 6, 06.2019, p. A984-A995.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McMeeking, Robert M. ; Ganser, Markus ; Klinsmann, Markus ; Hildebrand, Felix E. / Metal electrode surfaces can roughen despite the constraint of a stiff electrolyte. In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2019 ; Vol. 166, No. 6. pp. A984-A995.
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