One-dimensional steady-state thermal model for rotary kilns used in the manufacture of cement

Theodore Hanein* (Corresponding Author), Fredrik P. Glasser, Marcus N. Campbell Bannerman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Rotary kilns are used extensively in the cement industry to convert raw meal into cement clinker. In order to optimize the operation of cement kilns, computationally efficient thermal models are required. In this work, the development of a one-dimensional thermal model for kilns is explored. To simplify the model, the kiln is assumed to be well mixed in the transverse direction. A simultaneous mass and energy balance is solved based on a steady-state approximation. Existing semi-empirical models for heat transfer in the kiln are implemented and critically evaluated. The resulting one-dimensional model is capable of predicting axial temperature profiles in the rotary kiln which agree well with the available experimental data found in the literature. The model presented extends from previous models by considering a full enthalpy balance for the gas in the kiln. This allows the model to be used in a fully predictive manner, taking into account the temperature-dependent thermodynamic, transport, and radiative properties of the gas phase.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-215
Number of pages9
JournalAdvances in Applied Ceramics
Issue number4
Early online date21 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2017


  • rotary kiln
  • heat transfer
  • cement
  • clinker
  • thermal model
  • steady state


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