PC1/3 and PC2 gene expression and post-translational endoproteolytic pro-opiomelanocortin processing is regulated by photoperiod in the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

M Helwig, R M H Khorooshi, A Tups, Perry Barrett, Z A Archer, C Exner, J Rozman, L J Braulke, Julian Mercer, M Klingenspor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40%) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the expression of prohormone convertases 1 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) and the endoproteolytic processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) within key energy balance regulating centres of the hypothalamus. We compared mRNA levels and protein distribution of PC1/3, PC2, POMC, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin and orexin-A in selected hypothalamic areas of long day (LD, 16 : 8 h light : dark), short day (SD, 8 : 16 h light : dark) and natural-day (ND, photoperiod depending on time of the year) acclimated Siberian hamsters. The gene expression of PC2 was significantly higher within the arcuate nucleus (ARC, P < 0.01) in SD and in ND (versus LD), and is reflected in the day length profile between October and April in the latter. PC1/3 gene expression in the ARC and lateral hypothalamus was higher in ND but not in SD compared to the respective LD controls. The immunoreactivity of PC1/3 cleaved neuropeptide ACTH in the ARC and PC1/3-colocalised orexin-A in the latyeral hypothalamus were not affected by photoperiod changes. However, increased levels of PC2 mRNA and protein were associated with higher abundance of the mature neuropeptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin (P < 0.01) in SD. This study provides a possible explanation for previous paradoxical findings showing lower food intake in SD associated with decreased POMC mRNA levels. Our results suggest that a major part of neuroendocrine body weight control in seasonal adaptation may be effected by post-translational processing mediated by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2, in addition to regulation of gene expression of neuropeptide precursors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-425
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuroendocrinology
Volume18
Issue number6
Early online date28 Mar 2006
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

Keywords

  • seasonal body weight regulation
  • proteolytic processing
  • photoperiod
  • prohormone convertases
  • POMC
  • melanin-concentrating hormone
  • prohormone convertases PC1
  • food-intake
  • body-weight
  • arcuate nucleus
  • beta-endorphin
  • neuropeptide-Y
  • messenger-RNA
  • rat-brain
  • proprotein convertases

Cite this

PC1/3 and PC2 gene expression and post-translational endoproteolytic pro-opiomelanocortin processing is regulated by photoperiod in the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). / Helwig, M ; Khorooshi, R M H ; Tups, A ; Barrett, Perry; Archer, Z A ; Exner, C ; Rozman, J ; Braulke, L J ; Mercer, Julian; Klingenspor, M .

In: Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 18, No. 6, 06.2006, p. 413-425.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40{\%}) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the expression of prohormone convertases 1 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) and the endoproteolytic processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) within key energy balance regulating centres of the hypothalamus. We compared mRNA levels and protein distribution of PC1/3, PC2, POMC, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin and orexin-A in selected hypothalamic areas of long day (LD, 16 : 8 h light : dark), short day (SD, 8 : 16 h light : dark) and natural-day (ND, photoperiod depending on time of the year) acclimated Siberian hamsters. The gene expression of PC2 was significantly higher within the arcuate nucleus (ARC, P < 0.01) in SD and in ND (versus LD), and is reflected in the day length profile between October and April in the latter. PC1/3 gene expression in the ARC and lateral hypothalamus was higher in ND but not in SD compared to the respective LD controls. The immunoreactivity of PC1/3 cleaved neuropeptide ACTH in the ARC and PC1/3-colocalised orexin-A in the latyeral hypothalamus were not affected by photoperiod changes. However, increased levels of PC2 mRNA and protein were associated with higher abundance of the mature neuropeptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin (P < 0.01) in SD. This study provides a possible explanation for previous paradoxical findings showing lower food intake in SD associated with decreased POMC mRNA levels. Our results suggest that a major part of neuroendocrine body weight control in seasonal adaptation may be effected by post-translational processing mediated by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2, in addition to regulation of gene expression of neuropeptide precursors.",
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AU - Helwig, M

AU - Khorooshi, R M H

AU - Tups, A

AU - Barrett, Perry

AU - Archer, Z A

AU - Exner, C

AU - Rozman, J

AU - Braulke, L J

AU - Mercer, Julian

AU - Klingenspor, M

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N2 - A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40%) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the expression of prohormone convertases 1 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) and the endoproteolytic processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) within key energy balance regulating centres of the hypothalamus. We compared mRNA levels and protein distribution of PC1/3, PC2, POMC, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin and orexin-A in selected hypothalamic areas of long day (LD, 16 : 8 h light : dark), short day (SD, 8 : 16 h light : dark) and natural-day (ND, photoperiod depending on time of the year) acclimated Siberian hamsters. The gene expression of PC2 was significantly higher within the arcuate nucleus (ARC, P < 0.01) in SD and in ND (versus LD), and is reflected in the day length profile between October and April in the latter. PC1/3 gene expression in the ARC and lateral hypothalamus was higher in ND but not in SD compared to the respective LD controls. The immunoreactivity of PC1/3 cleaved neuropeptide ACTH in the ARC and PC1/3-colocalised orexin-A in the latyeral hypothalamus were not affected by photoperiod changes. However, increased levels of PC2 mRNA and protein were associated with higher abundance of the mature neuropeptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin (P < 0.01) in SD. This study provides a possible explanation for previous paradoxical findings showing lower food intake in SD associated with decreased POMC mRNA levels. Our results suggest that a major part of neuroendocrine body weight control in seasonal adaptation may be effected by post-translational processing mediated by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2, in addition to regulation of gene expression of neuropeptide precursors.

AB - A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40%) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the expression of prohormone convertases 1 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) and the endoproteolytic processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) within key energy balance regulating centres of the hypothalamus. We compared mRNA levels and protein distribution of PC1/3, PC2, POMC, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin and orexin-A in selected hypothalamic areas of long day (LD, 16 : 8 h light : dark), short day (SD, 8 : 16 h light : dark) and natural-day (ND, photoperiod depending on time of the year) acclimated Siberian hamsters. The gene expression of PC2 was significantly higher within the arcuate nucleus (ARC, P < 0.01) in SD and in ND (versus LD), and is reflected in the day length profile between October and April in the latter. PC1/3 gene expression in the ARC and lateral hypothalamus was higher in ND but not in SD compared to the respective LD controls. The immunoreactivity of PC1/3 cleaved neuropeptide ACTH in the ARC and PC1/3-colocalised orexin-A in the latyeral hypothalamus were not affected by photoperiod changes. However, increased levels of PC2 mRNA and protein were associated with higher abundance of the mature neuropeptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin (P < 0.01) in SD. This study provides a possible explanation for previous paradoxical findings showing lower food intake in SD associated with decreased POMC mRNA levels. Our results suggest that a major part of neuroendocrine body weight control in seasonal adaptation may be effected by post-translational processing mediated by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2, in addition to regulation of gene expression of neuropeptide precursors.

KW - seasonal body weight regulation

KW - proteolytic processing

KW - photoperiod

KW - prohormone convertases

KW - POMC

KW - melanin-concentrating hormone

KW - prohormone convertases PC1

KW - food-intake

KW - body-weight

KW - arcuate nucleus

KW - beta-endorphin

KW - neuropeptide-Y

KW - messenger-RNA

KW - rat-brain

KW - proprotein convertases

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2006.01431.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2006.01431.x

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 413

EP - 425

JO - Journal of Neuroendocrinology

JF - Journal of Neuroendocrinology

SN - 0953-8194

IS - 6

ER -