Regional diversity in social perceptions of (ing)

Erik Schleef (Corresponding Author), Nicholas Flynn, William Barras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


This article examines the perception of the (ing) variants, [ɪŋ] and [ɪn], in three regionally distinct localities in Britain: London in the South of England; Manchester in the North; and Edinburgh in Scotland. Data was gathered in perceptual tests in which respondents from each location rated stimuli doublets, each containing only one of the variants of (ing), on multiple social attribute scales. In London and Manchester, the perception of [ɪŋ] and [ɪn] broadly matches findings made for the United States in that speakers using [ɪŋ] are considered more articulate and hardworking, and less casual than speakers using [ɪn]. In Edinburgh, results are markedly different. We argue that these differences are due to a combination of factors that include the historical development of (ing) in a particular locale, which led to differences in production, variations in language ideology and, as a result, class-specific evaluations that appear to be regionally dependent.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-56
Number of pages28
JournalLanguage Variation and Change
Issue number1
Early online date29 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


Dive into the research topics of 'Regional diversity in social perceptions of (ing)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this