Signalling and anti-proliferative effects mediated by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors after expression in prostate cancer cells using recombinant adenovirus

J Franklin, James Nicholas Hislop, A Flynn, C A McArdle

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Abstract

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-Rs) are found in cancers of reproductive tissues, including those of the prostate, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can inhibit growth of cell lines derived from such cancers. Although pituitary and extra-pituitary GnRH-R transcripts appear identical, their functional characteristics may differ. Most extra-pituitary GnRH-Rs have low affinity for GnRH analogues and may not activate phospholipase C or discriminate between agonists and antagonists in the same way as do pituitary GnRH-Rs. Here we have assessed whether GnRH-Rs expressed exogenously in prostate cancer cells differ functionally from those of gonadotrophs. We found no evidence for endogenous GnRH-Rs in PC3 cells, but after infection with adenovirus expressing the GnRH-R (Ad GnRH-R) at 10 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/cell or greater, at least 80% of the cells expressed GnRH-Rs. These sites had high affinity (K(d )for [(125)I]Buserelin 1.1+/-0.4 nM) and specificity (rank order of potency: Buserelin> GnRH>chicken (c) GnRH-II), and mediated stimulation of [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. Increasing viral titre from 3 to 300 p.f.u./cell increased receptor number (2000 to 275 000 sites/cell respectively) and [(3)H]IP responses. GnRH also caused a biphasic increase in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells but not in control cells. Mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores contributed to the spike phase of this response whereas the plateau phase was dependent upon Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. This effect on Ca(2+) and stimulation of [(3)H]IP accumulation were both blocked by the GnRH-R antagonist, Cetrorelix. In addition, GnRH reduced cell number (as measured in MTT activity assays) and DNA synthesis (as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation) in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells (but not in control cells). This effect was mimicked by agonist analogues and inhibited by two antagonists. Thus, when exogenous GnRH-Rs are expressed at a density comparable to that in gonadotrophs, they are functionally indistinguishable from the endogenous GnRH-Rs in gonadotrophs. Moreover, expression of high affinity GnRH-Rs can facilitate a direct anti-proliferative effect of GnRH agonists on prostate cancer cells.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-84
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Endocrinology
Volume176
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2003

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LHRH Receptors
Adenoviridae
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Prostatic Neoplasms
Gonadotrophs
Pituitary Gonadotropins
Pituitary Hormones
Buserelin
Hormone Antagonists
Adenoviridae Infections
Type C Phospholipases

Keywords

  • Adenoviridae
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Buserelin
  • Cell Division
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Receptors, LHRH
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transduction, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured

Cite this

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title = "Signalling and anti-proliferative effects mediated by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors after expression in prostate cancer cells using recombinant adenovirus",
abstract = "Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-Rs) are found in cancers of reproductive tissues, including those of the prostate, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can inhibit growth of cell lines derived from such cancers. Although pituitary and extra-pituitary GnRH-R transcripts appear identical, their functional characteristics may differ. Most extra-pituitary GnRH-Rs have low affinity for GnRH analogues and may not activate phospholipase C or discriminate between agonists and antagonists in the same way as do pituitary GnRH-Rs. Here we have assessed whether GnRH-Rs expressed exogenously in prostate cancer cells differ functionally from those of gonadotrophs. We found no evidence for endogenous GnRH-Rs in PC3 cells, but after infection with adenovirus expressing the GnRH-R (Ad GnRH-R) at 10 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/cell or greater, at least 80{\%} of the cells expressed GnRH-Rs. These sites had high affinity (K(d )for [(125)I]Buserelin 1.1+/-0.4 nM) and specificity (rank order of potency: Buserelin> GnRH>chicken (c) GnRH-II), and mediated stimulation of [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. Increasing viral titre from 3 to 300 p.f.u./cell increased receptor number (2000 to 275 000 sites/cell respectively) and [(3)H]IP responses. GnRH also caused a biphasic increase in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells but not in control cells. Mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores contributed to the spike phase of this response whereas the plateau phase was dependent upon Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. This effect on Ca(2+) and stimulation of [(3)H]IP accumulation were both blocked by the GnRH-R antagonist, Cetrorelix. In addition, GnRH reduced cell number (as measured in MTT activity assays) and DNA synthesis (as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation) in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells (but not in control cells). This effect was mimicked by agonist analogues and inhibited by two antagonists. Thus, when exogenous GnRH-Rs are expressed at a density comparable to that in gonadotrophs, they are functionally indistinguishable from the endogenous GnRH-Rs in gonadotrophs. Moreover, expression of high affinity GnRH-Rs can facilitate a direct anti-proliferative effect of GnRH agonists on prostate cancer cells.",
keywords = "Adenoviridae, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Buserelin, Cell Division, Genetic Therapy, Genetic Vectors, Humans, Male, Prostatic Neoplasms, Receptors, LHRH, Signal Transduction, Transduction, Genetic, Tumor Cells, Cultured",
author = "J Franklin and Hislop, {James Nicholas} and A Flynn and McArdle, {C A}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Signalling and anti-proliferative effects mediated by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors after expression in prostate cancer cells using recombinant adenovirus

AU - Franklin, J

AU - Hislop, James Nicholas

AU - Flynn, A

AU - McArdle, C A

PY - 2003/2

Y1 - 2003/2

N2 - Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-Rs) are found in cancers of reproductive tissues, including those of the prostate, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can inhibit growth of cell lines derived from such cancers. Although pituitary and extra-pituitary GnRH-R transcripts appear identical, their functional characteristics may differ. Most extra-pituitary GnRH-Rs have low affinity for GnRH analogues and may not activate phospholipase C or discriminate between agonists and antagonists in the same way as do pituitary GnRH-Rs. Here we have assessed whether GnRH-Rs expressed exogenously in prostate cancer cells differ functionally from those of gonadotrophs. We found no evidence for endogenous GnRH-Rs in PC3 cells, but after infection with adenovirus expressing the GnRH-R (Ad GnRH-R) at 10 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/cell or greater, at least 80% of the cells expressed GnRH-Rs. These sites had high affinity (K(d )for [(125)I]Buserelin 1.1+/-0.4 nM) and specificity (rank order of potency: Buserelin> GnRH>chicken (c) GnRH-II), and mediated stimulation of [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. Increasing viral titre from 3 to 300 p.f.u./cell increased receptor number (2000 to 275 000 sites/cell respectively) and [(3)H]IP responses. GnRH also caused a biphasic increase in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells but not in control cells. Mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores contributed to the spike phase of this response whereas the plateau phase was dependent upon Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. This effect on Ca(2+) and stimulation of [(3)H]IP accumulation were both blocked by the GnRH-R antagonist, Cetrorelix. In addition, GnRH reduced cell number (as measured in MTT activity assays) and DNA synthesis (as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation) in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells (but not in control cells). This effect was mimicked by agonist analogues and inhibited by two antagonists. Thus, when exogenous GnRH-Rs are expressed at a density comparable to that in gonadotrophs, they are functionally indistinguishable from the endogenous GnRH-Rs in gonadotrophs. Moreover, expression of high affinity GnRH-Rs can facilitate a direct anti-proliferative effect of GnRH agonists on prostate cancer cells.

AB - Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-Rs) are found in cancers of reproductive tissues, including those of the prostate, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can inhibit growth of cell lines derived from such cancers. Although pituitary and extra-pituitary GnRH-R transcripts appear identical, their functional characteristics may differ. Most extra-pituitary GnRH-Rs have low affinity for GnRH analogues and may not activate phospholipase C or discriminate between agonists and antagonists in the same way as do pituitary GnRH-Rs. Here we have assessed whether GnRH-Rs expressed exogenously in prostate cancer cells differ functionally from those of gonadotrophs. We found no evidence for endogenous GnRH-Rs in PC3 cells, but after infection with adenovirus expressing the GnRH-R (Ad GnRH-R) at 10 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/cell or greater, at least 80% of the cells expressed GnRH-Rs. These sites had high affinity (K(d )for [(125)I]Buserelin 1.1+/-0.4 nM) and specificity (rank order of potency: Buserelin> GnRH>chicken (c) GnRH-II), and mediated stimulation of [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. Increasing viral titre from 3 to 300 p.f.u./cell increased receptor number (2000 to 275 000 sites/cell respectively) and [(3)H]IP responses. GnRH also caused a biphasic increase in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells but not in control cells. Mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores contributed to the spike phase of this response whereas the plateau phase was dependent upon Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. This effect on Ca(2+) and stimulation of [(3)H]IP accumulation were both blocked by the GnRH-R antagonist, Cetrorelix. In addition, GnRH reduced cell number (as measured in MTT activity assays) and DNA synthesis (as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation) in Ad GnRH-R-infected cells (but not in control cells). This effect was mimicked by agonist analogues and inhibited by two antagonists. Thus, when exogenous GnRH-Rs are expressed at a density comparable to that in gonadotrophs, they are functionally indistinguishable from the endogenous GnRH-Rs in gonadotrophs. Moreover, expression of high affinity GnRH-Rs can facilitate a direct anti-proliferative effect of GnRH agonists on prostate cancer cells.

KW - Adenoviridae

KW - Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal

KW - Buserelin

KW - Cell Division

KW - Genetic Therapy

KW - Genetic Vectors

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Prostatic Neoplasms

KW - Receptors, LHRH

KW - Signal Transduction

KW - Transduction, Genetic

KW - Tumor Cells, Cultured

M3 - Article

C2 - 12553876

VL - 176

SP - 275

EP - 284

JO - Journal of Endocrinology

JF - Journal of Endocrinology

SN - 0022-0795

IS - 2

ER -