Solubilization of toxic metal minerals and metal tolerance of mycorrhizal fungi

M. Fomina, Ian James Alexander, J. Colpaert, G. M. Gadd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

142 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This work investigates the ability of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi to solubilize different toxic metal (Cd, Cu, Ph, Zn)-containing minerals. Minerals were incorporated into solidified agar media and solubilization assessed by measuring clearing of the agar after fungal growth. Measurement of radial growth and biomass dry weight provided indications of metal tolerance: accumulated metal in the biomass was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal tolerance and solubilizing ability varied widely between different mineral and fungal species, and strains derived from sites of differing degrees of metal pollution. Zinc phosphate exhibited the least toxicity and was the easiest to solubilize by the majority of tested fungal isolates. Solubilization of toxic metal minerals was connected with both the pH of the medium and growth and tolerance of fungi and it seems that acidification of the medium was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution for most of the mycorrhizal fungi studied. A very strong lethal effect was observed for ectomycorrhizal isolates (> 60% of strains) in the presence of Pb phosphate, carbonate, sulphide and tetraoxide. In contrast, ericoid mycorrhizal isolates were able to grow on Pb-mineral-amended media. A significant proportion of ericoid mycorrhizal cultures (70-90%) solubilized Cd and Cu phosphates and cuprite. None of the ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi were able to produce a clear zone in Pb mineral -containing agar. However, many fungi were able to accumulate mobilized Ph in their mycelia. Differences in toxic metal mineral tolerance, mineral solubilization and metal uptake between populations isolated from metal-polluted and uncontaminated sites were related to the toxic metal which was the main pollutant in the original contaminated environment. In general, metal-tolerant fungi grew and solubilized toxic metal minerals better than non-tolerant isolates. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)851-866
Number of pages15
JournalSoil Biology and Biochemistry
Volume37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Keywords

  • mycorrhizal fungi
  • toxic metal minerals
  • solubilization
  • tolerance
  • metal accumulation
  • interspecific variations
  • ECTOMYCORRHIZAL PINUS-SYLVESTRIS
  • ZINC TOLERANCE
  • HEAVY-METALS
  • CALLUNA-VULGARIS
  • IN-VITRO
  • SOILS
  • BETULA
  • TRANSFORMATION
  • PROTECTION
  • ENDOPHYTES

Cite this

Solubilization of toxic metal minerals and metal tolerance of mycorrhizal fungi. / Fomina, M.; Alexander, Ian James; Colpaert, J.; Gadd, G. M.

In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 37, 2005, p. 851-866.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fomina, M. ; Alexander, Ian James ; Colpaert, J. ; Gadd, G. M. / Solubilization of toxic metal minerals and metal tolerance of mycorrhizal fungi. In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 37. pp. 851-866.
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AU - Fomina, M.

AU - Alexander, Ian James

AU - Colpaert, J.

AU - Gadd, G. M.

PY - 2005

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N2 - This work investigates the ability of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi to solubilize different toxic metal (Cd, Cu, Ph, Zn)-containing minerals. Minerals were incorporated into solidified agar media and solubilization assessed by measuring clearing of the agar after fungal growth. Measurement of radial growth and biomass dry weight provided indications of metal tolerance: accumulated metal in the biomass was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal tolerance and solubilizing ability varied widely between different mineral and fungal species, and strains derived from sites of differing degrees of metal pollution. Zinc phosphate exhibited the least toxicity and was the easiest to solubilize by the majority of tested fungal isolates. Solubilization of toxic metal minerals was connected with both the pH of the medium and growth and tolerance of fungi and it seems that acidification of the medium was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution for most of the mycorrhizal fungi studied. A very strong lethal effect was observed for ectomycorrhizal isolates (> 60% of strains) in the presence of Pb phosphate, carbonate, sulphide and tetraoxide. In contrast, ericoid mycorrhizal isolates were able to grow on Pb-mineral-amended media. A significant proportion of ericoid mycorrhizal cultures (70-90%) solubilized Cd and Cu phosphates and cuprite. None of the ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi were able to produce a clear zone in Pb mineral -containing agar. However, many fungi were able to accumulate mobilized Ph in their mycelia. Differences in toxic metal mineral tolerance, mineral solubilization and metal uptake between populations isolated from metal-polluted and uncontaminated sites were related to the toxic metal which was the main pollutant in the original contaminated environment. In general, metal-tolerant fungi grew and solubilized toxic metal minerals better than non-tolerant isolates. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - This work investigates the ability of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi to solubilize different toxic metal (Cd, Cu, Ph, Zn)-containing minerals. Minerals were incorporated into solidified agar media and solubilization assessed by measuring clearing of the agar after fungal growth. Measurement of radial growth and biomass dry weight provided indications of metal tolerance: accumulated metal in the biomass was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal tolerance and solubilizing ability varied widely between different mineral and fungal species, and strains derived from sites of differing degrees of metal pollution. Zinc phosphate exhibited the least toxicity and was the easiest to solubilize by the majority of tested fungal isolates. Solubilization of toxic metal minerals was connected with both the pH of the medium and growth and tolerance of fungi and it seems that acidification of the medium was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution for most of the mycorrhizal fungi studied. A very strong lethal effect was observed for ectomycorrhizal isolates (> 60% of strains) in the presence of Pb phosphate, carbonate, sulphide and tetraoxide. In contrast, ericoid mycorrhizal isolates were able to grow on Pb-mineral-amended media. A significant proportion of ericoid mycorrhizal cultures (70-90%) solubilized Cd and Cu phosphates and cuprite. None of the ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi were able to produce a clear zone in Pb mineral -containing agar. However, many fungi were able to accumulate mobilized Ph in their mycelia. Differences in toxic metal mineral tolerance, mineral solubilization and metal uptake between populations isolated from metal-polluted and uncontaminated sites were related to the toxic metal which was the main pollutant in the original contaminated environment. In general, metal-tolerant fungi grew and solubilized toxic metal minerals better than non-tolerant isolates. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - mycorrhizal fungi

KW - toxic metal minerals

KW - solubilization

KW - tolerance

KW - metal accumulation

KW - interspecific variations

KW - ECTOMYCORRHIZAL PINUS-SYLVESTRIS

KW - ZINC TOLERANCE

KW - HEAVY-METALS

KW - CALLUNA-VULGARIS

KW - IN-VITRO

KW - SOILS

KW - BETULA

KW - TRANSFORMATION

KW - PROTECTION

KW - ENDOPHYTES

U2 - 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.10.013

DO - 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.10.013

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 851

EP - 866

JO - Soil Biology and Biochemistry

JF - Soil Biology and Biochemistry

SN - 0038-0717

ER -