Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study

M. J. Struelens, D. Wagner, Julie Bruce, Fiona MacKenzie, B. Cookson, A. Voss, P. J. Van Den Broek, Ian M Gould, ARPAC Steering Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and procedures implemented in 2001 for the surveillance and control of nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance was completed by 169 acute-care hospitals from 32 European countries, categorised by five geographical regions. A formal IC programme existed in 72% of hospitals, and a multidisciplinary IC committee was operational in 90%. Trained IC nurses (ICNs) were present in 80% of hospitals (ranging from 54% in south-east and central-eastern Europe, to 100% in northern Europe), whereas 74% had one or more trained IC doctors (ICDs) (ranging from 46% in south-east Europe to 84% in western Europe). Median staffing levels were 2.33 ICNs/1000 beds and 0.94 ICDs/1000 beds. The intensity of IC programmes scored higher in centres from northern and western Europe than from other European regions. Written guidelines promoted hand hygiene for healthcare workers in 89% of hospitals, education in 85%, and audit in 46%. Guidelines recommended use of alcohol-based solutions (70%) and/or medicated/antiseptic soap (43%) for decontamination of non-soiled hands. Use of alcohol-based solutions varied according to region, from 41% in southern Europe to 100% in northern Europe, compared with use of medicated soap from 77% in southern Europe to 11% in northern Europe (p < 0.01). These findings showed that IC programmes in European hospitals suffer from major deficiencies in human resources and policies. Staffing levels for ICNs were below recommended standards in the majority of hospitals. Education programmes were incomplete and often not supported by audit of performance. Hand hygiene procedures were sub-standard in one-third of centres. Strengthening of IC policies in European hospitals should be a public health priority.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-737
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Keywords

  • ARPAC
  • cross-infection
  • education
  • hand-hygiene
  • infection control policies
  • nosocomal infection
  • CONTROL PROGRAMS
  • UNITED-STATES
  • HAND HYGIENE
  • SURVEILLANCE
  • CARE
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY

Cite this

Struelens, M. J., Wagner, D., Bruce, J., MacKenzie, F., Cookson, B., Voss, A., ... ARPAC Steering Group (2006). Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 12, 729-737. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01462.x

Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study. / Struelens, M. J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, Julie; MacKenzie, Fiona; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Van Den Broek, P. J.; Gould, Ian M; ARPAC Steering Group.

In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 12, 2006, p. 729-737.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Struelens, MJ, Wagner, D, Bruce, J, MacKenzie, F, Cookson, B, Voss, A, Van Den Broek, PJ, Gould, IM & ARPAC Steering Group 2006, 'Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study', Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 12, pp. 729-737. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01462.x
Struelens, M. J. ; Wagner, D. ; Bruce, Julie ; MacKenzie, Fiona ; Cookson, B. ; Voss, A. ; Van Den Broek, P. J. ; Gould, Ian M ; ARPAC Steering Group. / Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study. In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2006 ; Vol. 12. pp. 729-737.
@article{da3d89df30d243f499e6025875873fc2,
title = "Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study",
abstract = "Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and procedures implemented in 2001 for the surveillance and control of nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance was completed by 169 acute-care hospitals from 32 European countries, categorised by five geographical regions. A formal IC programme existed in 72{\%} of hospitals, and a multidisciplinary IC committee was operational in 90{\%}. Trained IC nurses (ICNs) were present in 80{\%} of hospitals (ranging from 54{\%} in south-east and central-eastern Europe, to 100{\%} in northern Europe), whereas 74{\%} had one or more trained IC doctors (ICDs) (ranging from 46{\%} in south-east Europe to 84{\%} in western Europe). Median staffing levels were 2.33 ICNs/1000 beds and 0.94 ICDs/1000 beds. The intensity of IC programmes scored higher in centres from northern and western Europe than from other European regions. Written guidelines promoted hand hygiene for healthcare workers in 89{\%} of hospitals, education in 85{\%}, and audit in 46{\%}. Guidelines recommended use of alcohol-based solutions (70{\%}) and/or medicated/antiseptic soap (43{\%}) for decontamination of non-soiled hands. Use of alcohol-based solutions varied according to region, from 41{\%} in southern Europe to 100{\%} in northern Europe, compared with use of medicated soap from 77{\%} in southern Europe to 11{\%} in northern Europe (p < 0.01). These findings showed that IC programmes in European hospitals suffer from major deficiencies in human resources and policies. Staffing levels for ICNs were below recommended standards in the majority of hospitals. Education programmes were incomplete and often not supported by audit of performance. Hand hygiene procedures were sub-standard in one-third of centres. Strengthening of IC policies in European hospitals should be a public health priority.",
keywords = "ARPAC, cross-infection, education, hand-hygiene, infection control policies, nosocomal infection, CONTROL PROGRAMS, UNITED-STATES, HAND HYGIENE, SURVEILLANCE, CARE, EPIDEMIOLOGY",
author = "Struelens, {M. J.} and D. Wagner and Julie Bruce and Fiona MacKenzie and B. Cookson and A. Voss and {Van Den Broek}, {P. J.} and Gould, {Ian M} and {ARPAC Steering Group}",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01462.x",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "729--737",
journal = "Clinical Microbiology and Infection",
issn = "1198-743X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study

AU - Struelens, M. J.

AU - Wagner, D.

AU - Bruce, Julie

AU - MacKenzie, Fiona

AU - Cookson, B.

AU - Voss, A.

AU - Van Den Broek, P. J.

AU - Gould, Ian M

AU - ARPAC Steering Group

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and procedures implemented in 2001 for the surveillance and control of nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance was completed by 169 acute-care hospitals from 32 European countries, categorised by five geographical regions. A formal IC programme existed in 72% of hospitals, and a multidisciplinary IC committee was operational in 90%. Trained IC nurses (ICNs) were present in 80% of hospitals (ranging from 54% in south-east and central-eastern Europe, to 100% in northern Europe), whereas 74% had one or more trained IC doctors (ICDs) (ranging from 46% in south-east Europe to 84% in western Europe). Median staffing levels were 2.33 ICNs/1000 beds and 0.94 ICDs/1000 beds. The intensity of IC programmes scored higher in centres from northern and western Europe than from other European regions. Written guidelines promoted hand hygiene for healthcare workers in 89% of hospitals, education in 85%, and audit in 46%. Guidelines recommended use of alcohol-based solutions (70%) and/or medicated/antiseptic soap (43%) for decontamination of non-soiled hands. Use of alcohol-based solutions varied according to region, from 41% in southern Europe to 100% in northern Europe, compared with use of medicated soap from 77% in southern Europe to 11% in northern Europe (p < 0.01). These findings showed that IC programmes in European hospitals suffer from major deficiencies in human resources and policies. Staffing levels for ICNs were below recommended standards in the majority of hospitals. Education programmes were incomplete and often not supported by audit of performance. Hand hygiene procedures were sub-standard in one-third of centres. Strengthening of IC policies in European hospitals should be a public health priority.

AB - Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and procedures implemented in 2001 for the surveillance and control of nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance was completed by 169 acute-care hospitals from 32 European countries, categorised by five geographical regions. A formal IC programme existed in 72% of hospitals, and a multidisciplinary IC committee was operational in 90%. Trained IC nurses (ICNs) were present in 80% of hospitals (ranging from 54% in south-east and central-eastern Europe, to 100% in northern Europe), whereas 74% had one or more trained IC doctors (ICDs) (ranging from 46% in south-east Europe to 84% in western Europe). Median staffing levels were 2.33 ICNs/1000 beds and 0.94 ICDs/1000 beds. The intensity of IC programmes scored higher in centres from northern and western Europe than from other European regions. Written guidelines promoted hand hygiene for healthcare workers in 89% of hospitals, education in 85%, and audit in 46%. Guidelines recommended use of alcohol-based solutions (70%) and/or medicated/antiseptic soap (43%) for decontamination of non-soiled hands. Use of alcohol-based solutions varied according to region, from 41% in southern Europe to 100% in northern Europe, compared with use of medicated soap from 77% in southern Europe to 11% in northern Europe (p < 0.01). These findings showed that IC programmes in European hospitals suffer from major deficiencies in human resources and policies. Staffing levels for ICNs were below recommended standards in the majority of hospitals. Education programmes were incomplete and often not supported by audit of performance. Hand hygiene procedures were sub-standard in one-third of centres. Strengthening of IC policies in European hospitals should be a public health priority.

KW - ARPAC

KW - cross-infection

KW - education

KW - hand-hygiene

KW - infection control policies

KW - nosocomal infection

KW - CONTROL PROGRAMS

KW - UNITED-STATES

KW - HAND HYGIENE

KW - SURVEILLANCE

KW - CARE

KW - EPIDEMIOLOGY

U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01462.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01462.x

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 729

EP - 737

JO - Clinical Microbiology and Infection

JF - Clinical Microbiology and Infection

SN - 1198-743X

ER -