Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?

H. M. Macdonald, A. Mavroeidi, W. D. Fraser, A. L. Darling, A. J. Black, L. Aucott, F. O'Neill, K. Hart, J. L. Berry, S. A. Lanham-New, D. M. Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

105 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary
We assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80% total annual intake of vitamin D.
Introduction
Vitamin D deficiency is highlighted as a potential problem for countries at high latitude, but there are few true longitudinal, seasonal data to allow regional comparisons. We aimed to directly compare seasonal variation in vitamin D status (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women at two northerly latitudes and to assess the relative contributions of sunlight exposure and diet.
Methods
Vitamin D status was assessed in 518 postmenopausal women (age 55–70 years) in a two-centre cohort study with serum collected at fixed three-monthly intervals from summer 2006 for immunoassay measurement of 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. At 57° N (Aberdeen, Scotland, UK), there were 338 Caucasian women; at 51° N (Surrey, South of England, UK), there were 144 Caucasian women and 35 Asian women. UVB exposure (polysulphone film badges) and dietary vitamin D intakes (food diaries) were also estimated.
Results
Caucasian women had lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.001) at 57° N compared to 51° N. Median (interquartile range) in nanomoles per litre for summer (June–August) at 57° N was 43.0 (20.9) and at 51° N was 62.5 (26.6) and for winter (December–February) at 57° N was 28.3 (18.9) and at 51° N was 39.9 (24.0). For Asian women at 51° N, median 25(OH)D was 24.0 (15.8) nmol/L in summer and 16.9 (15.9) nmol/L in winter. Median dietary vitamin D intakes were 80–100 IU for Caucasians and 50–65 IU for the Asian women. Sunlight was the main contributor to 25(OH)D with spring and summer providing >80% total annual intake.
Conclusions
These longitudinal data show significant regional and ethnic differences in UVB exposure and vitamin D status for postmenopausal women at northerly latitudes. The numbers of women who are vitamin D deficient is a major concern and public health problem.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2461-2472
Number of pages12
JournalOsteoporosis International
Volume22
Issue number9
Early online date18 Nov 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

Sunlight
Vitamin D
Film Dosimetry
Diet Records
Women's Rights
Scotland
Parathyroid Hormone
Immunoassay
England
Cohort Studies
Public Health
Diet

Keywords

  • dietary vitamin D
  • longitudinal study
  • postmenopausal women
  • regional vitamin D status

Cite this

Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes : a major cause for concern? / Macdonald, H. M.; Mavroeidi, A.; Fraser, W. D.; Darling, A. L.; Black, A. J.; Aucott, L.; O'Neill, F.; Hart, K.; Berry, J. L.; Lanham-New, S. A.; Reid, D. M.

In: Osteoporosis International, Vol. 22, No. 9, 09.2011, p. 2461-2472.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Macdonald, H. M. ; Mavroeidi, A. ; Fraser, W. D. ; Darling, A. L. ; Black, A. J. ; Aucott, L. ; O'Neill, F. ; Hart, K. ; Berry, J. L. ; Lanham-New, S. A. ; Reid, D. M. / Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes : a major cause for concern?. In: Osteoporosis International. 2011 ; Vol. 22, No. 9. pp. 2461-2472.
@article{31acbd0310ed4125a87da123a041a4e1,
title = "Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?",
abstract = "SummaryWe assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80{\%} total annual intake of vitamin D.IntroductionVitamin D deficiency is highlighted as a potential problem for countries at high latitude, but there are few true longitudinal, seasonal data to allow regional comparisons. We aimed to directly compare seasonal variation in vitamin D status (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women at two northerly latitudes and to assess the relative contributions of sunlight exposure and diet.MethodsVitamin D status was assessed in 518 postmenopausal women (age 55–70 years) in a two-centre cohort study with serum collected at fixed three-monthly intervals from summer 2006 for immunoassay measurement of 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. At 57° N (Aberdeen, Scotland, UK), there were 338 Caucasian women; at 51° N (Surrey, South of England, UK), there were 144 Caucasian women and 35 Asian women. UVB exposure (polysulphone film badges) and dietary vitamin D intakes (food diaries) were also estimated.ResultsCaucasian women had lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.001) at 57° N compared to 51° N. Median (interquartile range) in nanomoles per litre for summer (June–August) at 57° N was 43.0 (20.9) and at 51° N was 62.5 (26.6) and for winter (December–February) at 57° N was 28.3 (18.9) and at 51° N was 39.9 (24.0). For Asian women at 51° N, median 25(OH)D was 24.0 (15.8) nmol/L in summer and 16.9 (15.9) nmol/L in winter. Median dietary vitamin D intakes were 80–100 IU for Caucasians and 50–65 IU for the Asian women. Sunlight was the main contributor to 25(OH)D with spring and summer providing >80{\%} total annual intake.ConclusionsThese longitudinal data show significant regional and ethnic differences in UVB exposure and vitamin D status for postmenopausal women at northerly latitudes. The numbers of women who are vitamin D deficient is a major concern and public health problem.",
keywords = "dietary vitamin D, longitudinal study, postmenopausal women, regional vitamin D status",
author = "Macdonald, {H. M.} and A. Mavroeidi and Fraser, {W. D.} and Darling, {A. L.} and Black, {A. J.} and L. Aucott and F. O'Neill and K. Hart and Berry, {J. L.} and Lanham-New, {S. A.} and Reid, {D. M.}",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1007/s00198-010-1467-z",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "2461--2472",
journal = "Osteoporosis International",
issn = "0937-941X",
publisher = "SPRINGER-VERLAG LONDON LTD",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes

T2 - a major cause for concern?

AU - Macdonald, H. M.

AU - Mavroeidi, A.

AU - Fraser, W. D.

AU - Darling, A. L.

AU - Black, A. J.

AU - Aucott, L.

AU - O'Neill, F.

AU - Hart, K.

AU - Berry, J. L.

AU - Lanham-New, S. A.

AU - Reid, D. M.

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - SummaryWe assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80% total annual intake of vitamin D.IntroductionVitamin D deficiency is highlighted as a potential problem for countries at high latitude, but there are few true longitudinal, seasonal data to allow regional comparisons. We aimed to directly compare seasonal variation in vitamin D status (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women at two northerly latitudes and to assess the relative contributions of sunlight exposure and diet.MethodsVitamin D status was assessed in 518 postmenopausal women (age 55–70 years) in a two-centre cohort study with serum collected at fixed three-monthly intervals from summer 2006 for immunoassay measurement of 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. At 57° N (Aberdeen, Scotland, UK), there were 338 Caucasian women; at 51° N (Surrey, South of England, UK), there were 144 Caucasian women and 35 Asian women. UVB exposure (polysulphone film badges) and dietary vitamin D intakes (food diaries) were also estimated.ResultsCaucasian women had lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.001) at 57° N compared to 51° N. Median (interquartile range) in nanomoles per litre for summer (June–August) at 57° N was 43.0 (20.9) and at 51° N was 62.5 (26.6) and for winter (December–February) at 57° N was 28.3 (18.9) and at 51° N was 39.9 (24.0). For Asian women at 51° N, median 25(OH)D was 24.0 (15.8) nmol/L in summer and 16.9 (15.9) nmol/L in winter. Median dietary vitamin D intakes were 80–100 IU for Caucasians and 50–65 IU for the Asian women. Sunlight was the main contributor to 25(OH)D with spring and summer providing >80% total annual intake.ConclusionsThese longitudinal data show significant regional and ethnic differences in UVB exposure and vitamin D status for postmenopausal women at northerly latitudes. The numbers of women who are vitamin D deficient is a major concern and public health problem.

AB - SummaryWe assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80% total annual intake of vitamin D.IntroductionVitamin D deficiency is highlighted as a potential problem for countries at high latitude, but there are few true longitudinal, seasonal data to allow regional comparisons. We aimed to directly compare seasonal variation in vitamin D status (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women at two northerly latitudes and to assess the relative contributions of sunlight exposure and diet.MethodsVitamin D status was assessed in 518 postmenopausal women (age 55–70 years) in a two-centre cohort study with serum collected at fixed three-monthly intervals from summer 2006 for immunoassay measurement of 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. At 57° N (Aberdeen, Scotland, UK), there were 338 Caucasian women; at 51° N (Surrey, South of England, UK), there were 144 Caucasian women and 35 Asian women. UVB exposure (polysulphone film badges) and dietary vitamin D intakes (food diaries) were also estimated.ResultsCaucasian women had lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.001) at 57° N compared to 51° N. Median (interquartile range) in nanomoles per litre for summer (June–August) at 57° N was 43.0 (20.9) and at 51° N was 62.5 (26.6) and for winter (December–February) at 57° N was 28.3 (18.9) and at 51° N was 39.9 (24.0). For Asian women at 51° N, median 25(OH)D was 24.0 (15.8) nmol/L in summer and 16.9 (15.9) nmol/L in winter. Median dietary vitamin D intakes were 80–100 IU for Caucasians and 50–65 IU for the Asian women. Sunlight was the main contributor to 25(OH)D with spring and summer providing >80% total annual intake.ConclusionsThese longitudinal data show significant regional and ethnic differences in UVB exposure and vitamin D status for postmenopausal women at northerly latitudes. The numbers of women who are vitamin D deficient is a major concern and public health problem.

KW - dietary vitamin D

KW - longitudinal study

KW - postmenopausal women

KW - regional vitamin D status

U2 - 10.1007/s00198-010-1467-z

DO - 10.1007/s00198-010-1467-z

M3 - Article

C2 - 21085934

VL - 22

SP - 2461

EP - 2472

JO - Osteoporosis International

JF - Osteoporosis International

SN - 0937-941X

IS - 9

ER -