This paper evaluates the theory and evidence on territorial justice. The problems of defining and measuring service needs and service provision are outlined, and the statistical criteria for territorial justice are analysed. The empirical evidence on the spatial relationship between needs and provision is critically reviewed for four services in the U.K.: health care, education, housing and the personal social services. Several shortcomings in the evidence suggest that the extent of territorial justice has been underestimated. In particular, the empirical studies have not recognized that the statistical condition for territorial justice depends on the dimensions of needs and provision which are compared.