The fungal cell wall is essential for maintaining cell shape, protection from the environment, host-pathogen interactions and is highly immunogenic. Many of the enzymes involved in cell wall biogenesis are specific to fungi and are therefore attractive antifungal targets. For this reason, the structural organisation of the wall and the biochemistry and genetics of cell wall biosynthesis have been studied extensively. Considerable recent advances have been made in defining the pattern recognition receptors on cells of the innate immune system, which recognise specific cell wall components. In this chapter we discuss recent developments in the understanding of the structure, biosynthesis and function of the Candida albicans cell wall in relation to the pathogenesis of this fungus.