OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of age and body size on enantiomer selective pharmacokinetic (PK) of intravenous ketorolac in children using a microanalytical assay.
METHODS: Blood samples were obtained at 0, 15 and 30 min and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after a weight-dependent dose of ketorolac. Enantiomer concentration was measured using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Non-linear mixed-effect modelling was used to assess PK parameters.
KEY FINDINGS: Data from 11 children (1.7-15.6 years, weight 10.7-67.4 kg) were best described by a two-compartment model for R(+), S(-) and racemic ketorolac. Only weight (WT) significantly improved the goodness of fit. The final population models were CL = 1.5 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V1 = 8.2 × (WT/46), Q = 3.4 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V2 = 7.9 × (WT/46), CL = 2.98 × (WT/46), V1 = 13.2 × (WT/46), Q = 2.8 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V2 = 51.5 × (WT/46), and CL = 1.1 × (WT/46)(0.75) , V1 = 4.9 × (WT/46), Q = 1.7 × (WT/46)(0.75) and V2 = 6.3 × (WT/46)for R(+), S(-) and racemic ketorolac.
CONCLUSIONS: Only body weight influenced the PK parameters for R(+) and S(-) ketorolac. Using allometric size scaling significantly affected the clearances (CL, Q) and volumes of distribution (V1 , V2 ).
- postoperative pain
- body weight
- child, preschool
- nonlinear dynamics