The epidemiology of infectious mononucleosis in Northern Scotland

a decreasing incidence and winter peak

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4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

IBackground
Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is almost ubiquitous in humans and generally occurs at two ages: infantile, which is usually asymptomatic and associated with poorer socioeconomic conditions, and adolescent, which causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) in ~25% cases. The determinants of whether the infection causes IM remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate seasonality and temporal trends in IM.

Methods
Data from all Monospot tests, used as a marker for IM, were collected from the Grampian population over 16 years.

Results
Positive Monospot test results peaked at 17 years in females and 19 in males. Females had 16% more diagnoses, although 55% more tests. IM was ~38% more common in winter than summer. The annual rate of positive tests decreased progressively over the study period, from 174/100 000 (95% CI 171–178) in 1997 to 67/100 000 (95% CI 65–69) in 2012.

Conclusions
IM appears to be decreasing in incidence, which may be caused by changing environmental influences on immune systems. One such factor may be exposure to sunlight.
Original languageEnglish
Article number151
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2014

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Infectious Mononucleosis
Scotland
Epidemiology
Incidence
Sunlight
Human Herpesvirus 4
Immune System
Infection
Population

Keywords

  • seasonality
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • infectious mononucleus (IM)
  • epidemiology

Cite this

@article{bd6926db98e24d60a1d2085e6eeb2323,
title = "The epidemiology of infectious mononucleosis in Northern Scotland: a decreasing incidence and winter peak",
abstract = "IBackgroundInfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is almost ubiquitous in humans and generally occurs at two ages: infantile, which is usually asymptomatic and associated with poorer socioeconomic conditions, and adolescent, which causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) in ~25{\%} cases. The determinants of whether the infection causes IM remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate seasonality and temporal trends in IM.MethodsData from all Monospot tests, used as a marker for IM, were collected from the Grampian population over 16 years.ResultsPositive Monospot test results peaked at 17 years in females and 19 in males. Females had 16{\%} more diagnoses, although 55{\%} more tests. IM was ~38{\%} more common in winter than summer. The annual rate of positive tests decreased progressively over the study period, from 174/100 000 (95{\%} CI 171–178) in 1997 to 67/100 000 (95{\%} CI 65–69) in 2012.ConclusionsIM appears to be decreasing in incidence, which may be caused by changing environmental influences on immune systems. One such factor may be exposure to sunlight.",
keywords = "seasonality, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), infectious mononucleus (IM), epidemiology",
author = "Elizabeth Visser and Denis Milne and Ian Collacott and David McLernon and Carl Counsell and Mark Vickers",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2334-14-151",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "BMC Infectious Diseases",
issn = "1471-2334",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The epidemiology of infectious mononucleosis in Northern Scotland

T2 - a decreasing incidence and winter peak

AU - Visser, Elizabeth

AU - Milne, Denis

AU - Collacott, Ian

AU - McLernon, David

AU - Counsell, Carl

AU - Vickers, Mark

PY - 2014/3/20

Y1 - 2014/3/20

N2 - IBackgroundInfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is almost ubiquitous in humans and generally occurs at two ages: infantile, which is usually asymptomatic and associated with poorer socioeconomic conditions, and adolescent, which causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) in ~25% cases. The determinants of whether the infection causes IM remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate seasonality and temporal trends in IM.MethodsData from all Monospot tests, used as a marker for IM, were collected from the Grampian population over 16 years.ResultsPositive Monospot test results peaked at 17 years in females and 19 in males. Females had 16% more diagnoses, although 55% more tests. IM was ~38% more common in winter than summer. The annual rate of positive tests decreased progressively over the study period, from 174/100 000 (95% CI 171–178) in 1997 to 67/100 000 (95% CI 65–69) in 2012.ConclusionsIM appears to be decreasing in incidence, which may be caused by changing environmental influences on immune systems. One such factor may be exposure to sunlight.

AB - IBackgroundInfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is almost ubiquitous in humans and generally occurs at two ages: infantile, which is usually asymptomatic and associated with poorer socioeconomic conditions, and adolescent, which causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) in ~25% cases. The determinants of whether the infection causes IM remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate seasonality and temporal trends in IM.MethodsData from all Monospot tests, used as a marker for IM, were collected from the Grampian population over 16 years.ResultsPositive Monospot test results peaked at 17 years in females and 19 in males. Females had 16% more diagnoses, although 55% more tests. IM was ~38% more common in winter than summer. The annual rate of positive tests decreased progressively over the study period, from 174/100 000 (95% CI 171–178) in 1997 to 67/100 000 (95% CI 65–69) in 2012.ConclusionsIM appears to be decreasing in incidence, which may be caused by changing environmental influences on immune systems. One such factor may be exposure to sunlight.

KW - seasonality

KW - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

KW - infectious mononucleus (IM)

KW - epidemiology

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2334-14-151

DO - 10.1186/1471-2334-14-151

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - BMC Infectious Diseases

JF - BMC Infectious Diseases

SN - 1471-2334

M1 - 151

ER -